Sławomir Czetwertyński



This paper aims to explain crisis of authority of copyrights that is to prove incoherence between copyrights and a copying culture. In institutional meaning it is a conflict between formal and informal institutions. A formal institution is copyrights and informal one is set of standards and social behavior patterns which could be called a copying culture. Goal of the paper is demonstration of basic factors determining the afore-mentioned incoherence and reasons for its persistence. Performance of the afore-defined goal is associated with verification of two hypotheses. The first states that the crisis of the copyrights appeared because of Internet (which is a technical tool of a contemporary society). The second hypothesis states that enforcement of formal rights observance is hampered since it is not supported by informal institutions. The paper is divided into three main parts. The first part demonstrates an extent of crisis of copyrights and some probable reasons of the crisis are considered. The second part includes case studies related to enforcement of the copyrights which is aimed to explain reasons for persistence of the crisis. The third part focuses on alternative solutions of the problem which is conflict between formal and informal institutions. The paper is based on scientific reports on information goods non-market trade in Poland, Germany, USA and Sweden.


copyright; copying culture; Internet

Full Text:


References, Amazon Instant Video, (20.06.2015).

Benkler Y., Bogactwo sieci. Jak produkcja społeczna zmienia rynki i wolność, Wy-dawnictwa Akademickie i Profesjonalne, Warszawa 2008.

Besen S.M., Kirby N.S., Private Copying, Appropriability, and Optimal Copying Roy-alties, The Rand Corporation, Santa Monica 1987.

Besen S.M., Private Copying, Reproduction Costs, and the Supply of Intellectual Property, The Rand Corporation, Santa Monica 1984.

Castells M., Społeczeństwo sieci, PWN, Warszawa 2007.

Godłów-Legiędź J., Współczesna ekonomia. Ku nowemu paradygmatowi?, C.H. Beck, Warszawa 2010.

Grandoni D., Netflix Raises Price By $1 For New Customers, (20.06.2015).

Johnson W.R., The Economics of Copying, “Journal of Political Economy”, Vol. 93, No. 1/1985,

Karaganis J., Renkema L., Copy Culture in the US and Germany, The American As-sembly, New York 2013.

Levinson P., Nowe media, Wydawnictwo WAM, Kraków 2010.

Price D., Sizing the piracy universe, NetNames, London 2013.

Rogalski O., Policaj zamyka znane serwisy z nielegalnymi filmami i serialami! Wśród nich są, i inne, (20.06.2015).

Rosen L., Open Source Licensing. Software Freedom and Intellectual Property Law, Prentice Hall PTR; Upper Saddle River 2005.

Sandvine Incorporated ULC, Global Internet Phenomena Report: 2H 2014, Sandvine Incorporated ULC, Ontario 2014.

Siennica A., i – kolejne portale z nielegalnymi filmami i se-rialami zamknięte, (20.06.2015).

Stryszowski P., Scorpecci D., Piracy of Digital Content, OECD, Paris 2009.

Svensson M., Larsson S., Social norms and intellectual property: online norms and the European legal development, Lund University, Lund 2009., First Episodes of Game of Thrones Seasin 5 Leak Online, (18.06.2015)., Game of Thrones Season Finale Breaks Piracy Records, (18.06.2015)., Leaked Oscar Movie Screeners Flood Torrent Sites, (18.06.2015)., MegaUoload Shut Down by The Feds, Founder Arrested, (20.06.2015)., The Pirate Bay Turns 10 Years Old: The History, (20.06.2015).

Veblen T., Teoria klasy próżniaczej, Warszawskie wydawnictwo literackie Muza SA, Warszawa 2008.

ISSN 1898-2255 (print)
ISSN 2392-1625 (online)

Partnerzy platformy czasopism