Principal features of Chornohora climate (Ukrainian Carpathians)

Krzysztof Błażejczyk, Oleh Skrynyk



Chornohora is the highest mountain ridge in the Ukrainian Carpathians with 6 peaks of an altitude over 2,000 m above sea level (Hoverla is the highest peak, 2,061 m a.s.l). its climate is explored less than other mountain ridges in Europe. The massif is a climatic barrier for air masses on NW-SE line. To describe the climate of this area data from the weather station at Pozhyzhevska alpine meadow for the years 1961-2010 were used. The seasonal and long-term variability of air temperature, atmospheric precipitation and snow cover were investigated on the background of air circulation types. The results show that general features of Chornohora climate depend both, on elevation above sea level and on air circulation. Lowest temperature is observed at N-NE circulation and highest precipitation – at western air inflow. Long-term changes of examined climate elements in Chornohora show significant increase in mean (0.13°/10 years) and minimum (0.22°C/10 years) air temperature as well as in snow cover depth and number of snowy days.


Chornohora, Eastern Carpathians, air circulation, mountain climate, climate changes

Full Text:



BŁAŻEJCZYK K, 2019, Sezonowa i wieloletnia zmienność niektórych elementów klimatu w Tatrach i Karkonoszach w latach 1951–2015. Przegląd Geograficzny 91, 1: 59-80.

BŁAŻEJCZYK K, BARANOWSKI J, BŁAŻEJCZYK A and SZMYD J, 2013, Klimat i Bioklimat Hali Gąsienicowej. In: Rączkowska Z and Kotarba A (eds), The Sucha Woda Valley in the Tatra Mts. Natural environment and its present-day transformation, Geographical studies 239, IGiPZ PAN, Warsaw, 67-95.

BOKWA A, WYPYCH A, USTRNUL Z, 2013: Climate Changes in the Vertical Zones of the Polish Carpathians in the Last 50 Years. In: Kozak J et al. (eds), The Carpathians: Integrating Nature and Society Towards Sustainability, Environmental Science and Engineering. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 89-110.

BUCHINSKIJ IO, VOLEVACHA MM AND KORZOV VO, 1971, Klimat Ukrainskich Karpat (Climate of the Ukrainian Carpathians). Naukova Dumka, Kijiv (in Russian).

CHEVAL S, BIRSAN MV and DUMITRESCU A, 2014, Climate variability in the Carpathian Mountains Region over 1961-2010. Global and Planetary Change 118: 85-96.

DWORAK TZ and RYMANOWICZ L, 1992, Meteorological Observations of the Botanical and Agricultural Station at the Połonina Pożyżewska. Urania 37, 1-2: 87-91.

FALARZ M, 2002, The climatic causes of changes and long-term variability in the snow cover of the Polish Tatra Mountains. Przegląd Geograficzny 74, 1: 83-106.

GĄDEK B, GRABIEC M, RĄCZKOWSKA Z and MACIATA B, 2016, Variability of the snow avalanche danger in the Tatra Mountains during the past nine decades. Geographia Polonica 89, 1: 65-77.

GŁOWICKI B, 2000, 20th-century variability to daily maxima and minima of air temperature in the Sudetic Mountains. Geographia Polonica 73, 2: 111-116.

HESS M, 1965, Piętra klimatyczne w polskich Karpatach Zachodnich (Vertical climate zones in the Polish Western Carpathians). Zeszyty Naukowe UJ, Prace Geograficzne 11:1-267 (in Polish).

KOTARBA A, 2006, The thermal variations in the topoclimate of eastern part of Chornohora range (The Ukrainian Carpathian Mountains) during the summer season. Case study of the upper Prut valley. In: Troll M (ed.), Czarnohora. Przyroda i człowiek, IGiGP UJ Press, Cracow, 47-62.

KOTTEK M, GRIESER J, BECK C, RUDOLF B and RUBEL F, 2006, World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated. Meteorologische Zeitschrift 15, 3: 259-263.

KREINER JM and RYMANOWICZ L, 1992, The Marshal Józef Piłsudski Meteorological and Astronomical Observatory on the Pop Ivan Mountain (2022 m). Urania 37, 1-2: 77-85.

KREINER JM, 1989, Dzieje Obserwatorium Meteorologiczno-Astronomicznego na Pop Iwanie. Urania 4: 98-108.

MIGAŁA K, 2005, Piętra klimatyczne w górach Europy a problem zmian globalnych. Acta Universitatis Wratislaviensis 2718. Studia Geograficzne 78, University of Wroclaw Press.

MIGAŁA K, URBAN G and TOMCZYNSKI K 2016, Long-term air temperature variation in the Karkonosze mountains according to atmospheric circulation. Theoretical Applied Climatology 125: 337–351.

MUKHA B, 2017, Топоклімати Чорногори: монографія [Topoclimates of Chornohora: monograph]. Ivan Franko National University of Lviv Press, Lviv, Ukraine.

MURRAY R and LEWIS RP, 1966, Some aspects of the synoptic climatology of the British Isles as measured by simple indices. Meteorological Magazine, 95:193-203.

NIEDŹWIEDŹ T, 1993, Changes of atmospheric circulation (using the P, S, C, M indices) in the winter season and their influence on air temperature in Cracow. Zeszyty Naukowe UJ Prace Geograficzne 95: 107-113.

NIEDŹWIEDŹ T, 2003, Extreme precipitation events on the northern side of the Tatra Mountains. Geographia Polonica 76 2: 13-21.

NIEDŹWIEDŹ T, 2012, Climate. Chapter 2 in: Lóczy D, Stankoviansky M and Kotarba A (eds), Recent Landform Evolution. The Carpatho-Balcan-Dinaric Region, Springer, Dordrecht et al.,19-29.

NIEDŹWIEDŹ T, 2019, Kalendarz typów cyrkulacji atmosfery dla Polski południowej. Computer file, Uniwersytet Śląski, Katedra Klimatologii, Sosnowiec. (

PETLIN V and MATVIYIV V, 2003, Клімат [Climate]. In: Чорногірський Географічний Стаціонар [Chornohora Geographical Station], University of Lviv Press, Lviv, Ukraine, 35-40.

RUBEL F, BRUGGER K, HASLINGER K and AUER I, 2017, The climate of the European Alps: Shift of very high resolution Köppen-Geiger climate zones 1800–2100. Meteorologische Zeitschrift 26, 2: 115–125.

RYMAROWICZ L and KREINER JM, 2012, Działalność naukowo badawcza na Pop Iwanie. In: Luboński P and Wielocha A, (eds), Zamieszanie na Pop Iwanie. Płaj, 45: 43-55.

RYMAROWICZ L and WIELOCHA A, 2012, Tajemnica Pop Iwana albo drugie życie Obserwatorium. In: Luboński P and Wielocha A, (eds), Zamieszanie na Pop Iwanie. Płaj, 45: 15-36.

SHUBER P 2013, The climate high landscapes Chornohora. Problems of mountains landscape studies 1: 120-125.

SKRYNYK O and RYMAROWICZ L, 2018, Meteorological observations at Pip Ivan (Chornohora) and Kasprowy Wierch (Tatras) before the Second World War. Review of Geophysics 4: 363-373.

SPINONI J, SZALAI S, SZENTIMREY T et al, 2014, Climate of the Carpathian Region in the period 1961–2010: climatologies and trends of 10 variables. International Journal of Climatology 35, 7: 1322-1341.

STENZ E, 1925, Dawne spostrzeżenia pyrheliometryczne w Czarnohorze. Kosmos 50: 480-489.

STENZ E, 1926, O usłonecznieniu Czarnohory. Kosmos 51: 679-699.

STENZ E, 1929, Zachmurzenie i usłonecznienie Karpat Wschodnich. Kosmos 54: 439-469.

SZULC K, 1911, Spostrzeżenia meteorologiczne na Połoninie Pożyżewskiej w pasmie Czarnohorskiem w Karpatach Wschodnich. Kosmos 36, 10/12: 900-913.

SZULC K, 1912, Spostrzeżenia meteorologiczne na Połoninie Pożyżewskiej w pasmie Czarnohorskiem w Karpatach wschodnich w roku 1911, Kosmos 37: 483-490.

URBAN G 2015, ‘Duration of snow cover and its variability in the Polish part of the Sudetes Mts. and their foreland. Przegląd Geograficzny 87, 3: 497-516.

USTRNUL Z, WALAWENDER E, CZEKIERDA D, ŠTASNY P, LAPIN M and MIKULOVA K, 2015, Precipitation and snow cover. In: Dąbrowska K and Guzik M (eds), Atlas of the Tatry Mountains. Abiotic nature. Tatra National Park, Zakopane.

WIBIG J and GŁOWICKI B, 2002, Trends of minimum and maximum temperature in Poland. Climate Research 20: 123–133.

ŻMUDZKA E, 2009, Changes of thermal conditions in the Polish Tatra Mountains. Landform Analysis 10: 140–146.

ŻMUDZKA E, 2011, Contemporary climate changes in the high mountain part of the Tatras. Miscellanea Geographica 15: 93–102.

ŻMUDZKA E, NEJEDLIK P and MIKULOVA K, 2015, Temperature. thermal indices, In: Dąbrowska K and Guzik M (eds), Atlas of the Tatry Mountains. Abiotic nature. Tatra National Park, Zakopane.

ISSN 2080-7686 (print)
ISSN 2300-8490 (online)



Partnerzy platformy czasopism