Methodological aspects of pH and EC measurements in geothermal water

Ewa Kmiecik, Katarzyna Wątor, Barbara Tomaszewska, Klaudia Sekuła, Anna Mika

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/28776

Abstract


A proper methodology for collecting samples of geothermal water makes it possible not only to determine the hydrochemical characteristics of the water, but also to assess its temporal and spatial variability. The knowledge about the concentration of selected elements as well as the values of field measurements can help to indicate their impact on other environments and the processes that occur in a geothermal system. An important issue is the quality of the results obtained from in-situ measurements of unstable parameters, i.a. pH and electrical conductivity (EC). The results of measurements presented in the paper were completed with the use of three different devices in hot and cooled raw geothermal water (field test). The research was performed during two seasons of increased (winter) and lower (summer) exploitation of geothermal water. The percentage difference between EC at temperatures of 22ºC and 75ºC was 3.27%; however, for the pH the observed percentage difference was only 0.26%. An additional experiment was carried out on a laboratory scale to indicate the influence of temperature changes on pH and EC measurements.


Keywords


geothermal water, unstable parameter measurements, pH, electrical conductivity

Full Text:

PDF

References


APOLLARO C, VESPASIANO G, MUTO F, DE ROSA R and MARINI L, 2016, Use of mean residence time of water, flowrate, and equilibrium temperature indicated by water geothermometers to rank geothermal resources. Application to the thermal water circuits of Northern Calabria. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 328 (15): 147–158.

ÁRMANNSSON H and ÓLAFSSON M, 2010, Geothermal sampling and analysis. Short Course V on Exploration for Geothermal Resources. UNU-GTP,GDC and KenGen.

BORSODI A, SZIRANYI B, KRETT G, MARIALIGETI K, JANURIK E and PEKAR F, 2016, Changes in the water quality and bacterial community composition of an alkaline and saline oxbow lake used for temporary reservoir of geothermal waters. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 23 (17): 17676–17688.

BOYD CE, 2000, pH, Carbon Dioxide, and Alkalinity. In: Water Quality. Springer, Boston, MA.

BUJAKOWSKI W, TOMASZEWSKA B and MIECZNIK M, 2016, The Podhale geothermal reservoir simulation for long-term sustainable production. Renewable Energy 99: 420–430.

DIAMOND LW and ALT-EPPING P, 2014, Predictive modelling of mineral scaling, corrosion and the performance of solute geothermometers in a granitoid-hosted, enhanced geothermal system. Applied Geochemistry 51: 216–228.

DOBRZYŃSKI D, KMIECIK E and WĄTOR K, 2018, Potencjał utleniająco-redukcyjny — informatywny i niewykorzystany wskaźnik jakości wód leczniczych i mineralnych (Oxidation reduction potential — an informative and unused indicator of curative and mineral water quality). Acta Balneologica 60(4): 233–238.

EN 27888, 1993, Water quality. Method for the determination of electrical conductivity.

EN ISO 10523, 2012, Water quality – Determination of pH.

GUO Q, LIU M, LI J, ZHANG X and WANG Y, 2017, Fluid geochemical constraints on the heat source and reservoir temperature of the Banglazhang hydrothermal system, Yunnan-Tibet Geothermal Province, China. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 172: 109–119.

HEM JD, 1989 Study and interpretation of the chemical characteristics of natural water. 4th ed. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2254. 264 p.

ISO 5667-11, 2009, Water quality - Sampling - Part 11: Guidance on sampling of groundwaters.

ISO 9963-1, 1994, Water quality – Determination of alkalinity – Part 1: Determination of total and composite alkalinity.

JOVER E, GÓMEZ-GUTIÉRREZ A, ALBAIGÉS J and BAYONA JM, 2007, Transport of organic contaminants through salinity stratified water masses. A microcosm experiment. Chemosphere 66: 730–737.

KANIA J and ÓLAFSSON M, 2005, Chemical Characteristics of Thermal Fluids from Stykkishólmur, Iceland. Proceedings of World Geothermal Congress 2005, Antalya, Turkey, 24–29 April 2005.

KANIA J, 2003, Geochemical interpretation of thermal fluids from low-temperature wells in Stykkishólmur, W-Iceland and Pyrzyce, NW-Poland. Geothermal Training Programme, 13: 305–336.

KĘPIŃSKA B and CIĄGŁO J, 2008, Możliwość zagospodarowania wód geotermalnych Podhala do celów balneoterapeutycznych i rekreacyjnych [Possibilities of use of the Podhale geothermal waters for balneotherapeutical and recreational purposes]. Geologia 34/3: 541–559 (in Polish).

KMIECIK E, 2018, Analytical procedures for ion quantification supporting water treatment processes. In: Geothermal water management, Bundschuh J, Tomaszewska B (eds) — Boca Raton [etc.]: CRC Press. Taylor and Francis Group, cop. 2018. — (Sustainable Water Developments : Resources, Management, Treatment, Efficiency and Reuse; ISSN 2373–7506; vol. 6). ISBN: 978-1-138-02721-3; e-ISBN: 978-1-315-73497-2. p. 83–112.

KORZEC K, 2016, Charakterystyka hydrogeochemiczna wód termalnych w rejonie Bańskiej Niżnej [Hydrogeochemical characteristics of thermal water in Bańska Niżna]. Doctoral Thesis. AGH University of Science and Technology. winntbg.bg.agh.edu.pl/rozprawy2/11186/summ11186.pdf (access: February, 2018) (in Polish, English summary)

KORZEC K, KMIECIK E, MIKA A, TOMASZEWSKA B and WĄTOR K, 2016, Metodyka opróbowania ujęć wód termalnych – aspekty techniczne [Methodology of thermal water sampling – technical aspects]. Technika Poszukiwań Geologicznych. Geotermia, Zrównoważony Rozwój 1, 75–87 (in Polish, English summary).

MEHL V and JOHANNSEN K, 2018, Calculating chemical speciation, pH, saturation index and calcium carbonate precipitation potential (CCPP) based on alkalinity and acidity using OpenModelica. Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology-Aqua, 67(1), 1–11.

NIELSEN DM (ed.), 2005, Practical handbook of environmental site characterization and groundwater monitoring. 2nd ed. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, 1318 p.

SÜER S, GÜLEÇ N, MUTLU H, HILTON DR, ÇIFTER C and SAYIN M, 2008, Geochemical Monitoring of Geothermal Waters (2002–2004) along the North Anatolian Fault Zone, Turkey: Spatial and Temporal Variations and Relationship to Seismic Activity. Pure and applied Geophysics, 165: 17–43.

TOMASZEWSKA B and PAJĄK L, 2012, Dynamics of clogging processes in injection wells used to pump highly mineralized thermal waters into the sandstone structures lying under the Polish Lowland. Archives of Environmental Protection 38/3: 103–117.

TOMASZEWSKA B, 2008 The prognosis of scaling phenomena in geothermal system using the geochemical modeling methods. Mineral Resources Management 24 (2/3): 399–407.

TOMASZEWSKA B, KMIECIK E, WĄTOR K and TYSZER M, 2018, Use of numerical modelling in the prediction of membrane. Reaction between antiscalants and feedwater. Desalination 427: 27–34.

WITCZAK S, KANIA J and KMIECIK E, 2013, Katalog wybranych fizycznych i chemicznych wskaźników zanieczyszczeń wód podziemnych i metod ich oznaczania [Guidebook on selected physical and chemical indicators of groundwater contamination and methods of their determination]. Biblioteka Monitoringu Środowiska, Warsaw. www.gios.gov.pl/images/dokumenty/raporty/ebook2_20130422.pdf (access: January 2019) (in Polish).

YILDIRIM B and ÖZGÜR N, 2017a, Hydrogeological, Hydrogeochemical and Isotope Geochemical Features of the Geothermal Waters in Kurşunlu, Western Anatolia, Turkey. Procedia Earth and Planetary Science 17: 742–745.

YILMAZ EE and ÖZGÜR N, 2017b, Hydrogeological, Hydrogeochemical and Isotope Geochemical Features of Geothermal Waters in Tekkehamam and Environs, Western Anatolia, Turkey. Procedia Earth and Planetary Science 17: 177–180.

ZEPPENFELD K, 2010, Calcite precipitation from aqueous solutions with different calcium and hydrogen carbonate concentrations. Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology-Aqua 59(8), 482–491.








ISSN 2080-7686 (print)
ISSN 2300-8490 (online)

 

 

Partnerzy platformy czasopism