Long-term variability of water temperature and salinity at the Polish coast

Małgorzata Świątek

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/18427


The variability of surface water temperature and water salinity at the south coast of the Baltic in the years 1950–2015 was studied in the article. To that aim, monthly surface water temperature values in Świnoujście, Międzyzdroje, Kołobrzeg (from 1957), Władysławowo, Hel and Gdynia were used, as well as monthly water salinity values in Międzyzdroje, Władysławowo, Hel and Gdynia, all obtained from IMGW-PIB (Institute of Meteorology and Water Management – National Research Institute). Linear regression and Pearson’s simple correlation coefficient of individual monthly, seasonal and annual series of temperature and salinity values over time (in subsequent years) were used to analyse the temporal changes of the examined parameters. In the analysed period a rise in the annual water temperature was recorded in Międzyzdroje, Władysławowo, Hel and Gdynia, while the extent of the changes increased towards the east. There were also positive trends in temperature values in individual months. At the same time, there was a decrease in water salinity, which was also found to be most distinct in the eastern part of the coast. In Władysławowo, Hel and Gdynia, statistically significant drops occurred in nearly all months. During the months featuring statistically insignificant trends, the observed change trends were also negative. Concurrent water temperature increases and water salinity decreases consequently caused a decline in sea water surface density at the Polish Baltic coast.


water temperature, salinity, Pomeranian Bay, Gdańsk Bay, trends

Full Text:



BERGSTRÖM S, ALEXANDESSON H, CARLSSON B, JOSEFSSON W, KARLSSON KG and WASTERING G, 2001, Climate and hydrology of the Baltic Basin, [in:] A system analysis of the Baltic Sea, Wulff F., Rahm L., Lasson P. Springer, Berlin-Heidelberg-NewYork: 25-111.

BIERNACIK D., FILIPIAK J., MIĘTUS M., WÓJCIK R., 2010, Zmienność warunków termicznych w Polsce po roku 1951. Rezultaty projektu KLIMAT, (in:) Klimat Polski na tle klimatu Europy. Zmiany i konsekwencje, Bednorz E., Kolendowicz L. (eds), Bogucki Wydawnictwo Naukowe, Poznań: 5-18.

BRADTKE K., HERMAN A., URBAŃSKI J., 2010, Spatial and interannual variations of seasonal sea surface temperature patterns in the Baltic Sea. Oceanologia, 52 (3): 345-362.

BUSUIOC A., CHEN D., HELLSTRÖM C., 2001, Temporal and spatial variability of precipitation in Sweden and its link with the large-scale atmospheric circulation. Tellus A, 53 (3): 348- 367.

CYBERSKA B., 1990, Zasolenie wód Basenu Gdańskiego. [in:] Majewski A. (ed.), Zatoka Gdańska, Wydawnictwa Geologiczne, Warszawa: 237-255.

CYBERSKA B., 1994, Zasolenie wody. [in:] Majewski A., Lauer Z. (ed.), Atlas Morza Bałtyckiego, Wydawnictwo IMGW, Warszawa: 103-111.

CYBERSKI J., 2002, Powiązania zmienności parametrów bilansu wodnego Morza Bałtyckiego z Oscylacją Północnoatlantycką (NAO). [in:] Marsz A., Styszyńska A. (ed.), Oscylacja Północnego Atlantyku i jej rola w kształtowaniu zmienności warunków klimatycznych i hydrologicznych Polski, Wydawnictwo Akademii Morskiej, Gdynia: 181-189.

ELKEN J., LEHMANN A., MYRBERG K., 2015, Recent change – marine circulation and stratification. [in:] the BACC II Author Team, Second Assassment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin, Springer, Heidelberg-New York-Dordrecht-London: 243-252.

FEISTEL R., NAUSCH G. WASMUND N., 2008, State and Evolution of the Baltic Sea, 1952-2005: A Detailed 50-Year Survey of Meteorology and Climate, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, and Marine Environment. John Wiley & Sons Inc., Hobocen.

FILIPIAK J., 2004, Zmienność temperatury powietrza na Wybrzeżu i Pojezierzu Pomorskim w drugiej połowie XX wieku. IMGW, Warszawa.

GIRJATOWICZ J. P., 1983, Zjawiska lodowe u polskiego wybrzeża Bałtyku oraz ich wpływ na żeglugę i rybołówstwo. Wydawnictwo Akademii Rolniczej w Szczecinie, Szczecin.

GIRJATOWICZ J.P., 1990, Atlas zlodzenia wód polskiego wybrzeża Bałtyku. Akademia Rolnicza w Szczecinie, Szczecin.

GIRJATOWICZ J. P., 2008a, Katalog zasolenia i stanów wody polskiego wybrzeża Bałtyku. Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu Szczecińskiego, Szczecin.

GIRJATOWICZ J.P., 2008b, The relationships of the North Atlantic Oscillation to water temperature along the southern Baltic Sea Coast. International Journal of Climatology, 28: 1071-1081.

GIRJATOWICZ J.P., 2011, Ice conditions on the Southern Baltic sea coast. Journal of Cold Regions Engineering, 25 (1): 1-15.

GIRJATOWICZ J. P., 2017, Trendy zmian zasolenia wód powierzchniowych u polskich wybrzeży Bałtyku. Inżynieria Morska i Geotechnika, 38, 3: 107-112.

GIRJATOWICZ J. P., CHABIOR M., 1995, Trendy i cykle temperatury wody u polskiego wybrzeża Bałtyku. Inżynieria Morska i Geotechnika, 16, 4: 162-165.

GIRJATOWICZ J. P., ŚWIĄTEK M., 2016, Salinity variations of the surface water at the southern coast of the Baltic Sea in years 1950-2010. Continental Shelf Research, 126: 110-118.

GRAHAM P., 2004, Climate change effects on river flow to the Baltic Sea. Ambio, 33 (4-5): 235-241.

HEINO R., TOUMENVIRTA H., VUGLINSKY V., GUSTAFSSON B., ALEXANDERSSON H., BÄRING L., BRIEDE A., CAPPELEN J., DEILANG C., FALARZ M., FØRLAND E., HAAPALA J., JAAGUS J., KITAJEV L., KONL A., KUUSIST E., LINDSTRÖM G., MEIER M., MIĘTUS M., MOBERG A., MYRBERG K., NIEDŹWIEDŹ T., NORDLI Ø., OMSTEDT A., ORVIKU K., PRUSZAK Z., RIMKUS E., RUSSAK V., SCHRUM C., SMURSAAR Ü., VIHMA T., WEISSE R., WIBIG J., 2008, Past and current climate change. [in:] the BACC Author Team, chairman: Hans van Storch, Assessment of climate change for the Baltic Sea Basin, Springer-Verlag, Berlin – Heidelberg: 45-132.


JAKOBSEN F., 1995, The major inflow to the Baltic Sea during January 1993. Journal of Marine Systems, 6: 227-240.

JEVREJEVA S., DRABKIN V.V., KOSTJUKOV J., LEBEDEV A.A., LEPPÄRANTA M., MIRONOW YE.U., SCHMELZER N., SZTOBRYN M., 2004, Baltic Sea ice seasons in the twentieth century. Climate Research, 25: 217-227.

JONES P.D., MOBERG A., 2003, Hemispheric and large-scale surface air temperature variations: an extensive revision and an update to 2001. Journal of Climate, 16: 206-223.

KJELLSTRÖM E., DÖSCHER R., MEIER M., 2005, Atmospheric response to different sea surface temperatures in the Baltic Sea: coupled versus uncoupled regional climate model experiments. Nordic Hydrology, 36: 397-409.

KOWALEWSKI M., OSTROWSKI M., 2005, Coastal up- and downwelling in the southern Baltic. Oceanologia, 47 (4): 453-475.

KRĘŻEL A., OSTROWSKI M., SZYMELFENIG M., 2005, Sea Surface temperature distribution during upwelling along Polish Baltic coast. Oceanologia, 47 (4): 415-432.

KUNDZEWICZ Z., 2010, Prognozowane kierunki zmian klimatycznych – scenariusz dla Polski. [in:] Bioróżnorodność a zmiany klimatyczne – zagrożenia, szanse, kierunki działań, Generalna Dyrekcja Ochrony Środowiska, Warszawa: 3-4.

LEHMANN A., MYRBERG K., 2008, Upwelling in the Baltic Sea – A review. Journal of Marine Systems, 74: 3-12.

LEPPÄRANTA M, MYRBERG K., 2009, Physical Oceanography of the Baltic Sea. Springer, Berlin – Heidelberg – New York.

LÓPEZ-MORENO J., VINCENTE-SERRANO S., 2008, Positive and negative phases of the wintertime North Atlantic Oscillation and drought occurrence over Europe: a multitemporal-scale approach. Journal of Climate, 21: 1220-1243.

MADSEN K., HØJERSLEV N., 2009, Long-term temperature and salinity records from Baltic Sea transition zone. Boreal Environmental Research, 14: 125-131.

MAIER M., 2015, Project change – marine physics. [in:] the BACC II Author Team, Second Assassment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin, Springer, Heidelberg-New York-Dordrecht-London: 243-252.

MAJEWSKI A., 1972, Charakterystyka hydrologiczna estuariowych wód u polskiego wybrzeża. Prace Państwowego Instytutu Hydrologiczno-Meteorologicznego, 105: 3-40.

MAJEWSKI A., 1974, Charakterystyka hydrologiczna Zatoki Pomorskiej. Wydawnictwo Komunikacji i Łączności, Warszawa.

MATTHÄUS W., 1995, Natural variability and human impacts reflected in long-term changes in the Baltic deep water conditions – a brief review. Deutsche Hydrographische Zeitschrift, 47 (1): 47-65.

MATTHÄUS W., 2006, The history of investigation of salt water inflows into the Baltic Sea – from the early beginning to recent results. Marine Science Reports, Baltic Sea Research Institute IOW, Rostock - Warnemünde.

MATTHÄUS W., NEHRING D., FEISTEL R., NAUSCH G., MOHRHOLZ V., LASS H. U., 2008, The inflow of highly saline water into the Baltic Sea. [in:] Feistel R., Nausch G. Wasmund N. (Ed.), State and evolution of the Baltic Sea, 1952-2005: a detailed 50-year survey of meteorology and climate, physics, chemistry, biology, and marine environment, A John Wiley & Sons Inc.: 265-309.

MATTHÄUS W., SCHINKE H., 1994, Mean atmospheric circulation patterns associated with major Baltic inflows. Deutsche Hydrografische Zeitschrift, 46, 4: 321-339.

MATTHÄUS W., SCHINKE H., 1999, The influence of river runoff on deep water conditions of the Baltic Sea. Hydrobiologia, 393: 1-10.

MEIER M., DÖSCHER R., BROMAN B., PIECHURA J., 2004, The major Baltic inflow in January 2003 and preconditioning by smaller inflows in summer/autumn 2002: a model study. Oceanologia, 46, 4: 557-579.

MEIER M., KAUKER F., 2003, Modeling decadal variability of the Baltic Sea: 2. Role of freshwater inflow and large-scale atmospheric circulation for salinity. Journal of Geophysics Research, 108 (C11), 19 pp.

MEIER M., KJELLSTRÖM E., GRAHAM P., 2006, Estimating uncertainties of projected Baltic Sea salinity in the late 21st century. Geophysics Research Letter, 33, LI5705, 4 pp.

MIĘTUS M. FILIPIAK J., OWCZAREK M., JAKUSIK E., 2003, Ocena zmian procesów meteorologicznych, hydrologicznych i chemicznych zachodzących w środowisku morskim południowego Bałtyku oraz na terenach przybrzeżnych., Wydawnictwo IMGW, Gdynia.

MŁODZIŃSKA Z., 1974, Koncentracja i skład chemiczny soli w Zatoce Gdańskiej. Studia i Materiały Oceanologiczne, 8: 65-94.

NEUMANN T., FRIEDLAND R., 2011, Climate change impacts on the Baltic Sea. [in:] Schernewski G., Hofstede J., Neumann T. (eds), Global change and Baltic coastal zones, Springer, Dordrecht: 51-70.

OMSTEDT A, AXELL L, 1998, Modeling the seasonal, interannual, and long term variations of salinity and temperature in the Baltic proper. Tellus, 50A: 637-652.

OMSTEDT A, AXELL L, 2003, Modeling the variations of salinity and temperature in large Gulfs of the Baltic Sea. Continental Shelf Research, 23: 265-294.

OMSTEDT A., ELKEN J., LEHMAN A., LEPPÄRANTA M., MEIER M., MYRBERG K., RUTGERSSON A., 2014, Progress in physical oceanography of the Baltic Sea during the 2003-2014 period. Progress of Oceanography, 128: 139-1701.

OMSTEDT A., PETTERSEN C., RODHE J., WINSOR P., 2004, Baltic Sea climate: 200yr of data air temperature, ice cover, and atmospheric circulation. Climate Research, 25: 205-216.

PALOSUO E., 1961, Crystal structure of brackidh and fresh-water ice. Snow and Ice Commission Publication, 54: 9-14.

PAWLAK J., LEPPÄNEN J. M. (eds), 2007, Climate change in the Baltic Sea area – HELCOM thematic assessment in 2007. Baltic Marine Environment Protectin Comission – Helsinki Comission, Helsinki.

PIECHURA J., 1974, Mieszanie się wód południowego Bałtyku. Prace Instytutu. Gospodarki Wodnej, 2: 5-65.

RAK D., WIECZOREK P., 2012, Variability of temperature and salinity over the last decade in selected regions of the Southern Baltic Sea. Oceanologia, 54 (3): 339-354.

ROBAKIEWICZ W., 1993, Warunki hydrodynamiczne Zalewu szczecinskiego I cieśnin łączących Zalew z Zatoką Pomorską. Wydawnictwo IBW PAN, Gdańsk.

SAMUELSSON M., 1996, Interannual salinity variations in the Baltic Sea during the period 1954-1990. Continental Shelf Research, 16 (11): 1463-1477.

SCHERNEWSKI G., HOFSTEDE J., NEUMANN T. (eds), 2011, Global Change and Baltic Coastal Zones. Springer, Dordrecht.

SCHINKE H., MATTHÄUS W., 1998, On the causes of major Baltic inflows – an analysis of long time series. Continental Shelf Research, 18: 68-97.

SCHMELZER N., HOLFART J., 2012, Climatological ice atlas for the western and southern Baltic Sea (1961-2010). Bundesant für Seeschiffahrt and Hydrographic, Hamburg-Rostock.

SIEGEL H., GERTH M., TSCHERSICH G., 2006, Sea surface temperature development of the Baltic Sea in the period 1990-2004. Oceanologia, 48S: 119-131.

SIEGEL H., GERTH M., TSCHERSICH G., 2008, Satellite-Derived Sea Surface Temperature for the Period 1990-2005. [in:] Feistel R., Nausch G., Wasmund N., State and Evolution of the Baltic Sea, 1952-2005: A Detailed 50-Year Survey of Meteorology and Climate, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, and Marine Environment. John Wiley & Sons Inc., Hobocen: 241-263.

STRÖMER O., 2011, Climate change of impacts on coastal waters of the Baltic Sea. [in:] Schernewski G., Hofstede J., Neumann T. (eds), Global change and Baltic coastal zones. Springer, Dordrecht: 51-70.

ŚWIĄTEK M., 2011, Precipitation changes on the Polish coast of the Baltic Sea (1954-2003) due to changes in intensity of westerlines over Europe. Climate Research, 48: 23-29.

ŚWIĄTEK M., 2013, Zmiany temperatury powietrza i sum opadów na obszarze Pobrzeży Południowobałtyckich i ich wpływ na klimatyczny bilans wodny, na tle zmian globalnych. [in:] Borówka R., Cedro A. i Kavetskyy I. (ed.), Współczesne problemy badań geograficznych. US, PAN, Szczecin: 35-45.

ŚWIĄTEK M., 2016, Changes of the water temperature in Polish beach resorts. Baltic Coastal Zone, 20: 85-99.

THE BACC AUTHOR TEAM, 2008, Assessment of climate change for the Baltic Sea Basin. Springer-Verlag, Berlin – Heidelberg

THE BACC II AUTHOR TEAM, 2015, Second Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin. Springer, Heidelberg-New York-Dordrecht-London.

TIME SERIES ANALYSIS. Section III, 2010. Department of Statistics, University Oxford, Oxford.

WINSOR P., RODHE J., OMSTEDT A., 2001, Baltic Sea ocean climate: an analysis of 100yr of hydrologic data with focus on the freshwater budget. Climate Research, 18: 5-15.

WULFF E. V., RAHM L. A., LARSSON P. (eds.), 2001, A system analysis of the Baltic Sea. Springer-Verlag, Berlin – Heidelberg – New York.

ZAKRZEWSKI W., 1983, Lody na morzach. Wydawnictwo Morskie, Gdańsk.

ZORITA E., LAINE A., 2000, Dependence of salinity and oxygen concentrations in the Baltic Sea on large-scale atmospheric circulation. Climate Research, 14: 25-41.

ISSN 2080-7686 (print)
ISSN 2300-8490 (online)



Partnerzy platformy czasopism