Quality of water resources in the Niger basin and in the region of Lagos (Nigeria)

Olusegun Adeaga, Gil Mahe, Claudine Dieulin, Francoise Elbaz-Poulichet, Nathalie Rouche, Jean-Luc Seidel, Eric Servat

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/13213


Water quality studies in Nigeria are usually conducted at local scales and limited to a restricted number of chemical contaminants while reliable data on trace metals (including arsenic) concentrations are relatively scarce. This study focuses on available renewable water resources quality of selected sampled locations for major ions and trace elements concentration in the Lower River Niger basin and part of Lagos region. A screening of water contamination by arsenic and heavy metal was carried out through water sampling collection at selected locations using in-situ measurement and Laboratory testing to estimate heavy metal concentrations and water type. The analysis reveals  moderate Trace element contamination of the water resource with the exception of Pb while Mn and to a lesser extend Al exceeded WHO quality standards, but the Arsenic concentrations are lower than the drinking water quality standards and are safe for consumption and irrigation while the water type is Bicarbonate. 


Niger Delta, River Niger, water quality, Arsenic

Full Text:



ADEAGA O., MAHÉ G., DIEULIN C., ELBAZ-POULICHET F., ROUCHÉ N., SEIDEL J.L., SERVAT E., 2013, Analysis of surface water quality upstream Niger delta system. [in:] Young G., Perillo G.M.E., Aksoy H., Bogen J., Gelfan A., Mahé G., Marsh P., Savenije H., Deltas: landforms, ecosystems and human activities: proceedings of HP1, IAHS-IAPSO- IASPEI assembly. Wallingford: AISH, 358: 124-125.

ADELANA S.M.A., OLASEHIND P.I., VRBKA P., 2006, Isotope and geochemical characterization of surface and subsurface waters in the Semi-arid Sokoto basin, Nigeria, African Journal of Science and Technology (AJST) Science and Engineering Series, 4, 2: 80–89.

AMADI A. N., YISA J., OGBONNAYA I.C., DAN-HASSAN, M. A., JACOB J. O., ALKALI Y. B., 2012, Quality Evaluation of River Chanchaga Using Metal Pollution Index and Principal Component Analysis. Journal of Geography and Geology, 4, 2.

ANIMI M., ABBASPOUR K., BERG M., WINKEL L., HUG S.J., HOEHN E., YANG H., JOHNSON C.A., 2008, Statistical Modeling of global geogenic arsenic contamination in groundwater. Environmental Science and Technology, 42: 3669–3675.

AYENIMO J.G., ADEYINWO C.E., AMOO I.A., ODUKUDU, F., 2005, A preliminary investigation of heavy metals in periwinkles from Warri River, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 5, 5: 813–815.

BERNER E.K., BERNER R.A., 1987, The global water cycle: Geochemistry and Environment: Englewood Cliffs, NJ: PrenticeHall, Inc.: 142–155.

BRICKER O.P., JONES B.F., 1995, Main factors affecting the composition of natural waters. [in:] Salbu Ch. 1, B., Steines E. [eds], Trace Metals in Natural Waters, CRC Press: 1–19.

CENTENO J., MULLICK F., ISHAK K., ET AL., 2005, Environmental pathology. [in:] Selimus et al., [eds], Essential of medical Geology, Elsevier: 563–594.

EC, 2005, Commission Regulation (EC). 78/2005 of 19 January 2005.

ELBAZ-POULICHET F., GARNIER J.M., GUAN D.M., MARTIN J. M., THOMAS A. J., 1996, The conservative behaviour of trace metals (As, Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb) in the surface plume of stratified estuaries: example of the Rhone river (France). Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science, 42: 289–310.

ELBAZ-POULICHET F., SEIDEL J.L., CASIOT C., TUSSEAU-VILLEMIN M.H., 2006, Short-term variability of dissolved trace element concentrations in the Marne and Seine Rivers near Paris. Science of the Total Environment, 367: 278–287.

GALADIMA A., GARBA Z.N., LEKE L., ALMUSTAPHA M.N., ADAM, I.K., 2011, Domestic Water Pollution among Local Communities in Nigeria; Causes and Consequences. European Journal of Scientific Research, 52,4: 592–603.

HUGHES, R.H., HUGHES J.S., 1991, A directory of African wetlands, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

JAJI M.O., BAMGBOSE O., ODUKOYA O.O., AROWOLO T.A., 2007, Water quality assessment of Ogun River, South West Nigeria. Environmental Monitoring Assessment, 33, 1–3: 473–482. DOI: 10.1007/s10661-006-9602-1.

KAKULU S.E., OSIBANJO O., 1992, Pollution studies of Nigerian rivers: Trace metal levels of surface waters in the Niger Delta. International Journal of Environmental Studies, 41: 287–292.

LANGMUIR D.A., 1997, Aqueous Environmental Geochemistry; Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ: 600.

Lee, C.S.L., Li, X.D., Zhang, G., Li, J., Ding, A.J., Wang, T., 2007. Heavy metals and Pb isotopic composition of aerosols in urban and suburban areas of Hong Kong and Guangzhou, South China Evidence of the long-range transport of air contaminants. Environmental Pollution, 41, 2: 432–447.

MAHE G., L’HOTE Y., OLIVRY J.C., WOTLING G., 2001, Trends and discontinuities in regional rainfall of west and central Africa – 1951–1989. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 46, 2: 211–226.

MANOJ K., GHOSH S., AND PADHY P.K., 2013, Characterization and classification of hydrochemistry using multivariate graphical and hydrostatistical techniques, Research Journal of Chemical Sciences, 3, 5: 32–42.

Martin J.M., Guan D.M., Elbaz-Poulichet F., Thomas, A.J., Gordeev, V.V., 1993, Preliminary assessment of the distribution of some trace elements (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn) in a pristine aquatic environment: the Lena River estuary (Russia). Marine Chemistry, 43, 1/4: 185–199.

NEAL C., JARVIE H., WHITTON B., GEMMELL J., 2000, The water quality of the River Wear, north-east England. Science of the Total Environment, 251/252: 153–172.

NIGER-HYCOS, 2006, An information system for water resources assessment and management of the Niger Basin, a Sub-regional component of the WHYCOS Project Document – July 2006.

NRIAGU J., AFEICHE M., LINDER A., AROWOLO T,. ANA G., SRIDHAR M.K., OLORUNTOBA E.O., OBI E., EBENEBE J.C., ORISAKWE O.E., ADESINA A., 2008, Lead poisoning associated with malaria in children of urban areas of Nigeria. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 211: 591–605.

OLATUNJI O.S., OSIBANJO O., 2012, Determination of selected heavy metals in inland fresh water of lower River Niger drainage in North Central Nigeria. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 6, 10: 403–408.

ONWUGBUTA-ENYI J., ZABBEY N., ERONDU E.S., 2008, Water Quality of Bodo Creek in the Lower Niger Delta basin. Advances in Environmental Biology 2, 3: 132–136.

PIPER A.M., 1944, A graphic procedure in the geochemical interpretation of water analyses, Transaction of American Geophysical Union, 25: 914–928.

Rabiet M., Togola A., Brissaud F., Seidel J.-L., Budzinski H., Elbaz-Poulichet F., 2006, Consequences of treated water recycling as regards pharmaceuticals and drugs in surface and ground waters of a medium-sized Mediterranean catchment. Environmental Science and Technology, 40: 5282–5288.

SALOMON W., FORSTNER U., 1984, Metals in the Hydrocycle. Berlin, Springer: 349.

ISSN 2080-7686 (print)
ISSN 2300-8490 (online)



Partnerzy platformy czasopism