Metody pobierania próbek do badań organizmów niszczących zabytki

Joanna Karbowska-Berent



Methods of sampling for the biological research of cultural heritage

In the conservatory practice historic items deteriorated by microorganisms – moulds, bacteria, aerophilic algae – and higher organisms – wood-destroying fungi, insects, lichens and mosses – are encountered quite frequently. Properly taken samples are then necessary to estimate the vitality of microorganisms, to identify the species of the organisms causing biodeterioration and to choose the optimal combating method. Only the properly taken samples are useful to the research made by specialists in various filds of biology. The sampling conducted by a conservator and a biologist together is not always possible, therefore this work presents some instructions for conservators facilitating them the unassisted appropriate sampling of microorganisms as well as wood-destroying fungi, lichens, mosses and insects. The rules concerning the sampling of biofim to the microbiological research are discussed, including methods aiming for the culturing and identifiation of microorganisms. The methods of sampling for other investigation of the microorganisms are also presented, namely the print on transparent Scotch tape, sampling to the SEM observation and bioluminescence assay owing to which the estimation of contamination a surface by living microorganisms is possible. Moreover, the instructions for the proper sampling of wood-destroying fungi as well lichens, mosses and insects are discussed. The special attention is paid to the caution required during the sampling to avoid any further destructions of the historic support weakened by the activity of the deteriorating organisms.

Słowa kluczowe

pobieranie próbek do badań; organizmy niszczące zabytki; biodeterioracja; badania mikrobiologiczne zabytków; mikroorganizmy

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