Motivation to work remotely in the face of organizational and cost conditions
Keywordsmotivation, remote work, costs, communication
Motivation: Working conditions have changed significantly as remote working has become widespread in many countries. These changes were caused by a pandemic, as a result of which the possibility of direct communication as well as control and integration of employees was limited. There are also new cost categories for employees and employers, such as installing a better internet connection, purchasing new hardware and software, and implementing better security for data transmission outside the company’s premises. These changes resulted in changes in the employee motivation factors against the background of organizational and cost conditions, which is important for the proper development of the organization.
Aim: The aim of the article is to assess motivation to work remotely, based on a survey of opinions among 450 employees in total in Poland, the Czech Republic and Hungary. The assessment was performed by verifying, using the logistic regression method, ten hypotheses describing organizational and cost conditions as well as individual effects, such as career opportunities, increase in knowledge and skills, and the occurrence of stress that arose as a result of working remotely. The motivation to work remotely was verified by establishing the willingness to continue working through an opinion.
Results: Motivation in remote work is influenced by both efficient communication and technical assistance provided to the employee remotely. Motivation resulting from the independent organization of working time is also important, and it is based on the decision to choose the duration of work, hours and intensity of its performance. Organizational and cost-related factors are related to motivation, as well as individual effects experienced by the employee. Directly from the survey, it appears that only 26.8% of the respondents incurred higher costs related to remote work during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the respondents want to continue it with their current earnings. The study found that employees are motivated to work remotely because the organizational conditions and earnings meet their needs. They also admitted that thanks to remote work, they have a better chance of developing a professional career, as well as a higher level of their knowledge and skills, which is also associated with the motivation to continue working remotely.
Agrawal, K.P., Pani, A.K., & Sharma, R. (2020). Pandemic pandemonium and remote working: an investigation of determinants and their contextual behavior in virtualization of work-from-home (WFH) process. In S.K. Sharma, Y.K. Dwivedi, B. Metri, & N.P. Rana (Eds.), Re-imagining diffusion and adoption of information technology and systems: a continuing conversation. TDIT 2020. IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, 617, 261–273. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-64849-7_2.
Bailey, D.E., & Kurland, N.B. (2002). A review of telework research: findings, new directions, and lessons for the study of modern work. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 23(4), 393–400. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.144.
Banerjee, G., & Pati, I. (2020). Women working from home during COVID-19: an analysis. Parikalpana: KIIT Journal of Management, 16(1), 173–191. http://dx.doi.org/10.23862/kiit-parikalpana/2020/v16/i1-2/204566.
Barczyk, R., Spychała, J., Urbanowicz, Z., & Ziomek, A. (2022). What to look for to increase work added value: remote work and perceived productivity: a study in Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic. Research Papers in Economics and Finance, 6(1), 46–71. https://doi.org/10.18559/ref.2022.1.4.
Choukir, J., Alqahtani, M.S., Khalil, E., & Mohamed, E. (2022). Effects of working from home on job performance: empirical evidence in the Saudi context during the COVID-19 pandemic. Sustainability, 14, 3216. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14063216.
Conway, N., Deakin, S., Konzelmann, S., Petit, H., Rebérioux, A., & Wilkinson, F. (2008). The influence of stock market listing on human resource management: evidence for France and Britain. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 46(4), 631-673. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8543.2008.00698.x.
Danieluk, B. (2010). Zastosowanie regresji logistycznej w badaniach eksperymentalnych. Psychologia Społeczna, 2–3(14), 199–216.
Davidescu, A.A., Apostu, S.-A., Paul, A, & Casuneanu, I. (2020). Work flexibility, job satisfaction, and job performance among Romanian employees: implications for sustainable human resource management. Sustainability, 12(15), 6086. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12156086.
Fadzilah, N., Hanafi, M., Fatimah, S., & Azram, A.A.R. (2021). A study of work from home motivation among employees international. Journal of Asian Social Science, 11(8), 388–398. https://doi.org/10.18488/journal.1.2021.118.388.398.
Fahmi, P., Sudjono, Parwoto, Supriyatno, Saluy, A.B., Safitri, E., Effiyaldi, Rivaldo, Y., & Endri, E. (2022). Work stress mediates motivation and discipline on teacher performance: evidence work from home policy. Journal of Educational and Social Research, 12(3), 80–89. https://doi.org/10.36941/jesr-2022-0068.
Feng, Z., & Savani, K. (2020). COVID-19 created a gender gap in perceived work productivity and job satisfaction: implications for dual-career parents working from home. Gender in Management, 35(7), 719–736. https://doi.org/10.1108/GM-07-2020-0202.
Hackman, J.R., & Oldham, G.R. (1976). Motivation through the design of work: test of a theory. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 16(2), 250–279. https://doi.org/10.1016/0030-5073(76)90016-7.
Kamery, R.H. (2004). Employee motivation as it relates to effectiveness, efficiency, productivity, and performance. In Allied academies international conference: academy of legal, ethical and regulatory issues: proceedings, 8(2), 139-144.
Kim, S.K., Shin, S.J., Shin, J., & Miller, D.R. (2018). Social networks and individual creativity: the role of individual differences. Journal of Creative Behaviour, 52(4), 285–296. https://doi.org/10.1002/jocb.153.
Kohont, A., & Ignjatović, M. (2022). Organizational support of working from home: aftermath of COVID-19 from the perspective of workers and leaders. Sustainability, 14(9), 5107. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14095107.
Laker, B., & Roulet, T., (2019). Will the 4-day workweek take hold in Europe. Retrieved 23.02.2023 from https://hbr.org/2019/08/will-the-4-day-workweek-take-hold-in-europe.
López, M.M., & Moreno, A. (2021). The impact of digitization of the economy on the skills and professional qualifications, and their impact on working conditions and labor. Aranzadi.
Mizuno, M., Yamada, Y., Ishii, A., & Tanaka, S. (2006). A human resource management approach to motivation and job stress in paramedics. International Congress Series, 1294, 167–170. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ics.2006.02.021.
Mokhtarian, P., Bagley, N., & Salomo, I. (1998). The impact of gender, occupation, and presence of children on telecommuting motivations and constraints. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 49(12), 1115–1134. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-4571(1998)49:12%3C1115::AID-ASI7%3E3.0.CO;2-Y.
Moretti, A., Menna, F., Aulicino, M., Paoletta, M., Liguori, S., & Iolascon G. (2020). Characterization of home working population during COVID-19 emergency: a cross-sectional analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(17), 6284. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176284.
Niebuhr, F., Borle, P., Börner-Zobel, F., & Voelter-Mahlknecht, S. (2022). Healthy and happy working from home: effects of working from home on employee health and job satisfaction. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(3), 1122. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031122.
Nuur, A., Yulianti, R.D., Fauzi, M.N., Wawodjo, M.D., Suhartini, F. ., & Sumadhinata, Y.E. (2021). The effect of work motivation, work stress and work satisfaction on the performance of employees working from home (wfh) during the COVID-19 pandemic at xyz University Jakarta. Review of International Geographical Education Online, 11(5), 3189–3197. https://doi.org/10.48047/rigeo.11.05.209.
Pasi, N.B., Mahajan, K.S., & Rane, B.S. (2021). A method for performing forging operation: a perspective of Industry 4.0. Recent Patents on Mechanical Engineering, 14(3), 423-435. https://dx.doi.org/10.2174/2212797614666210120110548.
Rahul, De’., Pandey, N., & Pal, A. (2020). Impact of digital surge during COVID-19 pandemic: a viewpoint on research and practice. International Journal of Information Management, 55, 102171. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2020.102171.
Ramakrishnan, S., & Arokiasamy, L. (2019). Flexible working arrangements in malaysia: a study of employee's performance on white collar employees. Global Business and Management Research: An International Journal, 11(1), 551-559.
Rathnayake, N.M., Kumarasinghe, P.J., & Kumara, A.S. (2022). How do different types of university academics perceive work from home amidst COVID-19 and beyond. Sustainability, 14(9), 4868, https://doi.org/10.3390/su14094868.
Ross, D.S. (2022). A study on employee motivational factors and employee engagement in South India: the moderating role of work from home. Vision: The Journal of Business Perspective, Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1177/09722629221087382.
Rupietta, K., & Beckmann, M. (2018). Working from home: what is the effect on employees’ effort. Schmalenbach Business Review, 70(1), 25–55, https://doi:10.1007/s41464-017-0043-x.
Sablok, G., Stanton, P., Bartram, T., Burgess, J., Boyle, B. (2017). Human resource development practices, managers and multinational enterprises in Australia: thinking globally, acting locally. Education and Training, 59(5), 483-501. https://doi.org/10.1108/ET-02-2016-0023.
Smite, D., Tkalich, A., Moe, N.B., Papatheocharous, E., Klotins, E., & Buvik, M.P. (2022). Changes in perceived productivity of software engineers during COVID-19 pandemic: the voice of evidence. Journal of Systems and Software, 186, 111197. https://doi:10.1016/j.jss.2021.111197.
Toyin, A.A., Aiyenitaju, O., & Olatunji, D.A. (2021). The work-family balance of British working women during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Work-Applied Management, 13(2), 241–260. https://doi.org/10.1108/JWAM-07-2020-0036.
Verma, S.K, Kumar, B.D, Singh, N., Kumari, P., Ranjan, M., & Verma, A. (2021). The impact of COVID-19-induced factors on ‚work from home’ of employees. Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences, 13(6), S1000–S10002. https://doi:10.4103/jpbs.jpbs_247_21.
Wut, T.M., Lee, S.W., & Xu, J. (2022). Work from home challenges of the pandemic era in Hong Kong: a stimulus-organism-response perspective. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(6), 3420. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19063420.
Yildirim, S., Acaray, A., & Candan, B. (2016). The relationship between marketing culture and organizational commitment: an empirical study in Turkey. World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, 12(1), 66-80. https://doi.org/10.1108/WJEMSD-08-2015-0035.
Zito, M., Ingusci, E., Cortese, C.G., Giancaspro, M.L., Manuti, A., Molino, M., Signore, F., & Russo, V. (2021). Does the end justify the means: the role of organizational communication among work-from-home employees during the COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(8), 3933. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18083933.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Agnieszka Ziomek
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Number of views and downloads: 298
Number of citations: 0