HYDROCHEMICAL STUDIES OF GROUNDWATER IN PARTS OF LAGOS, SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA
Keywordsgroundwater chemistry, anthropogenic pollution, marine influences, Nigeria, Lagos
Groundwater samples were randomly collected from forty-five protected dug wells and thirteen boreholes in parts of Lagos, Southwestern Nigeria. Samples were analysed for pH, electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids in situ. Cations (calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium) and anions (chloride, bicarbonate, sulphate and carbonates) were determined in the laboratory after standard procedure. The study is aimed at examining the extent of groundwater pollution and its possible sources using multivariate and graphical techniques. Rockware software was used to characterize groundwater composition while the sample locations were mapped with ArcMap 9.3 software. The results show high mean value in the groundwater characteristics of the protected dug wells compared to the boreholes. A significant relationship exists among EC/ TDS and major ions indicating the influence of sea water on the groundwater quality. The dominant cations and anions are in the order of: Ca2+ > Mg2+ >Na+ > K+; and Cl- >HCO3 - > SO4 2+ respectively. Factor analysis extracted two major sources of pollution (sea water and industrial) responsible for the processes controlling groundwater quality in the area. The Piper plot revealed seven distinct water types including Ca-HCO3, Ca-Cl, Mg-HCO3, Na-SO4, Mg-Cl, Na-HCO3 and Na-Cl representing 44.8%, 25%, 15.5%, 5.2%, 3.4%, 3.4%, and 1.7% respectively. The paper recommended monitoring of groundwater abstraction and treatment of industrial effluent before being released into the subsurface to prevent salinization and quality deterioration in the study area.
ADEPELUMI A. A., AKO B. D., AJAYI T. R., AFOLABI O. and OMOTOSO E. J., 2009, Delineation of saltwater intrusion into the freshwater aquifer of Lekki Peninsula, Lagos, Nigeria Environ. Geology 56 (5), 927– 933, doi: 10.1007/ s00254-008-1194-3.
AIMAN A. L. and MOHAMED E., 2010, Groundwater investigation in Awlad Salameh, Southern Sohag, Upper Egypt, Earth Science Res. Journal, 14 (1), 63-75.
American Public Health Association (APHA), 1998, Standard methods for the examination of Water and wastewater, 20th Ed., APHA, Washington DC, 2005– 2605.
APPELO C.A.J and POSTMA D., 2005, Geochemistry groundwater and pollution, 2nd edn. Balkema, Netherlands.
ASIWAJU-BELLO Y. A and OLADEJI O. S., 2001, Numerical modelling of ground water flow patterns within Lagos metropolis, Nigeria, Nigerian Journal of Mining and Geology 37, 185–194.
AQUASTAT., 2011, Online database. Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/data/query/ index.html.
BACK W. and HANSHAW B.B., 1965, Advances in hydroscience. In chemical Geohydrology, Academic Press, New York, 11, 49.
BANOENG-YAKUBO B., YIDANA S.M. and NTI E., 2009, An evaluation of the genesis and suitability of groundwater for irrigation in the Volta region, Ghana, Environ Geology 57, 1005–1010.
COETSIERS M. and WALRAVENS K., 2006, Chemical characterization of the Noegene Aquifer, Belgium. Hydrogeology 14, 1556–1568.
COODE B., ROFE K. and LAPWORTH S., 1997, Hydrogeological Investigation of Lagos State, Final Report, Vol I & II, submitted to the Lagos State Water Corporation.
DALTON M.G and UPCHURCH S.B., 1978, Interpretation of hydrochemical facies by factor analysis, Ground Water, 16 (4), 228–233.
DUROV C.A., 1948, Natural waters and graphic representation of their composition, Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. Doklady, 59, 87–90.
EMMANUEL B.E. and CHUKWU L.O., 2010, Spatial distribution of saline water and possible sources of intrusion into a tropical freshwater lagoon and the transitional effects on the lacustrine ichthyofaunal diversity, African J. of Environ Sci. and Tech., 4(7), 480–491.
GÜLER C., THYNE G., MCCRAY J.E. and TURNER A.K., 2002, Evaluation of graphical and multivariate statistical methods for classification of water chemistry data, Hydrogeology Journal, 10 (4), 455–474.
HOUNSLOW A., 1995, Water quality data, Oklahoma, Lewis Publishers.
KARANTH K.R., 1987, Assessment, development and management of groundwaters. (1st Ed.), Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi, 716 pp.
KATHY C. and NIRANJALI J., 2010, Catchment process affecting drinking water quality, including the significance of rainfall events, using factor analysis and event mean concentrations, Journal of Water and Health, 8 (4), 751–763.
LWC (Lagos Water Corporation), 2012, Digest of statistics, Lagos Bureau of Statistics, Ministry of Economic Planning and Budget Publication, 203– 205 pp.
LIU C.W., LIN K.H and KUO Y.M., 2003, Application of factor analysis in the assessment of groundwater quality in a blackfoot disease area in Taiwan, Sci. Total Environ., 313(1–3), 77–89.
LONGE E.O., 2011, Groundwater resources potential in the coastal plain sand aquifers, Lagos, Nigeria. Res. J. Environ. and Earth Sci., 3(1), 1–7.
LU K.L., LIU C.W and JANG C.S., 2011, Using multivariate statistical methods to assess the groundwater quality in an arsenic-contaminated area of Southwestern Taiwan, Environ. Monit. Assess., doi: 10.1007/s10661-011-2406-y.
MENG S.X. and MAYNARD J.B., 2001, Use of statistical analysis to formulate conceptual models of geochemical behavior: Water chemical data from Butucatu aquifer in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Journal of Hydrol., 250, 78–97.
OTERI A.U. and ATOLAGBE F.P., 2003, Saltwater Intrusion into Coastal Aquifers in Nigeria, The Second International Conference on Saltwater Intrusion and Coastal Aquifers˗Monitoring, Modeling, and Management, Mérida, Yucatán, México, Environments and the 1st Arab Water Forum, 1–15.
PIPER A.M., 1944, A graphic procedure in the geochemical interpretation of water analyses, Am. Geophy. Union Trans., 25, 914–923.
RAO N.S., RAO P.S., REDDY G.V., NAGAMANI M., VIDYASAGAR G. and SATYANARAYANA N.L., 2012, Chemical characteristics of groundwater and assessment of groundwater quality in Varaha River Basin, Visakhapatnam District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Environ. Monit. Assess., 184 (8), 5189-214, doi: 10.1007/s10661-011-2333-y.
RockWare, 2006, Spreadsheet software for water analysis. Prairie city computing, inc. Aq•QA Application 1.1.1 [184.108.40.206] (Unicode).
SADASHIVAIAH C., RAMAKRISHNAIAH C.R. and RANGANNA G., 2008, Hydrochemical Analysis and Evaluation of Groundwater Quality in Tumkur Taluk, Karnataka State, India. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 5 (3), 158–164.
SCHOELLER H., 1962, Les eaux souterraines. Hydrologie dynamique et chimique. Recherche, exploitation et évaluation des ressources, Masson & Cie, Paris, France, 642.
SHANKAR K., ARAVINDAN S. and RAJENDRAN S., 2011, Hydrogeochemistry of the Paravanar River Sub-Basin, Cuddalore District, Tamilnadu, India., E-Journal of Chemistry, 8 (2), 835-845.
SIEBERT S., BURKE J., FAURES J., FRENKEN K., HOOGEVEEN J., DÖLL P. and PORTMANN T., 2010, Groundwater use for irrigation – a global inventory, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Science, 14, 1863–80.
TAY C. and KORTATSI B., 2007, Groundwater quality studies: A case study of the Densu Basin, Ghana, West Afr. J. of Appl. Eco., 12, 81-99.
TODD D.K. and MAYS L.W., 2005, Groundwater Hydrology, 3rd edition. John Wiley and Sons Inc. Pp., 652.
WEN X., WU Y., SU J., ZHANG Y. and LIU F., 2005, Hydrochemical characteristics and salinity of groundwater in the Ejina Basin, Northwestern China. Environ. Geol., 48, 665–675.
WWAP (World Water Assessment Programme), 2009, United Nations World Water Development Report 3: Water in a Changing World. Paris/London, UNESCO Publishing/ Earthscan.
YIDANA S.M., OPHORI D. and BANOENG-YAKUBO B., 2008a., A multivariate statistical analysis surface water chemistry – the Ankobra Basin, Ghana, Environ. Manag., 86, 80–87.
YIDANA S.M., OPHORI D. and BANOENG-YAKUBO B., 2008b, Hydrochemical evaluation of the Volta Basin: The Afram Plains area, J. Environ. Manag., 88, 697–707.
YIDANA S.M., BANOENG-YAKUBO B. and SAKYI P.A., 2012, Identifying key processes in the hydrochemistry of a basin through the combined use of factor and regression models, Journal of Earth System Science, 121(2), 491–507.
How to Cite
Number of views and downloads: 29
Number of citations: 0