Statistical data on international trade in British consular reports from the Sultanate of Zanzibar in the nineteenth century

Marek Pawełczak

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12775/RDSG.2020.07

Abstrakt


Niniejszy artykuł skupia się na kwestii wiarygodności dziewiętnastowiecznych brytyjskich raportów konsularnych jako źródeł w badaniach handlu międzynarodowego w Zanzibarze. Autor zestawia ze sobą dane statystyczne zawarte w wyżej wymienionych dokumentach z pochodzącymi z raportów francuskich i amerykańskich, a także z korespondencją amerykańskich i niemieckich przedsiębiorstw handlowych prowadzących działalność w Zanzibarze. Analiza pokazuje, że dane ujęte w brytyjskich raportach pochodzą z generalnie wiarygodnych źródeł, które jednak udostępniane były jedynie w okresach spadku koniunktury. Chociaż w statystykach pojawia się niewiele nieścisłości, to prawdopodobne jest, że dane były znacząco zaniżane. Nie wyklucza to jednak dużego stopnia wiarygodności raportów w odzwierciedlaniu struktury lokalnego handlu i najważniejszych tendencji w nim występujących.

 

The article concerns the reliability of nineteenth-century British consular reports as a source for the study of international trade in Zanzibar. The author confronts the statistical data contained therein with reports from France and the United States, as well as with the correspondence of US and German trade companies operating in Zanzibar. The author concludes that the data contained in the reports derives from essentially reliable sources, access to which, however, was only possible in the years of economic downturn. Although few inconsistencies can be found in the statistics, it is likely that they include significant underestimations. However, this does not preclude a significant degree of credibility in terms of the structure and general trends of the trade.


Słowa kluczowe


East Africa; Zanzibar; sources; nineteenth century; international trade; consular reports

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Bibliografia


Catalogue of consular reports used in the article

In parentheses: the label used in the footnotes, the link used in the Tables. Unless stated otherwise, this is the version marked below as “a.”

British Reports

The report of Colonel Christopher Rigby of 1860 (RIGBY, r)

a.) BL, IOR/L/PS/9, vol. 37, Ch. Rigby to Earl Russell, 1 Jul 1860, f. 597–655.

b.) PP, 1863, 3229, Report by Lieutenant-Colonel C. P. Rigby, Her Majesty’s Consul and British Agent, on the Trade of Zanzibar, for the Year 1860, [n.d.], pp. 239–249.

c.) “Report on the Zanzibar Dominions, by Lieutenant-Colonel C.P. Rigby, Bombay Army, Her Majesty’s Consul and British Agent at Zanzibar,” in: Ch.P. Rigby, General Rigby, Zanzibar and the Slave Trade: With Journals, Dispatches etc., ed. by Ch.E.B. Russell, London, 1935, pp. 326–355.

The report of Robert Playfair of 1863 (PLAYFAIR1, p1)

a.) BL, IOR L/PS/9/41, Playfair to Russell, Administration Report of the Zanzibar Political Agency for the Year Ending 31 May 1864, 1 May 1864, f. 297–329.

b.) PP 1864, 3393, R. Playfair, 20 Dec 1863, pp. 178-182.

The report of Robert Playfair of 1864 (PLAYFAIR2, p2)

BL, IOR L/PS/9/42, R. Playfair to C. Gonne, Administration Report of Zanzibar for the Year 1864–64, 17 Apr 1865, f. 881–893.

The report of George Seward of 1865 (SEWARD, se)

PP, 1867, 3761, Report by Mr. Acting Consul Seward on the Trade and Commerce of Zanzibar for the year 1864–5, [n.d.], pp. 281–288.

The report of John Kirk of 1870 (KIRK1, k1)

NA, FO/84 1344, J. Kirk, Administration report of the Zanzibar Agency, 1870, Rendered July 18, 1870, f. 116–166.

The report of Frederick Holmwood of 1875 (HOLMWOOD, hm)

NA, FO/84/1415, Prideaux to Earl Derby, 8 Feb 1875, f. 202–256.

The report of John Kirk of 1881 (KIRK2, k2)

NA, FO/84/1657, Report by Consul Kirk on the trade and Commerce of Zanzibar for the year 1881, 21 Apr 1882, f. 11–24.

The report of Claude MacDonald of 1887 (MACDONALD, mc)

NA, FO/403/104/10, Major C.M. MacDonald to Marquis Salisbury, 19 Dec 1887, f. 9–11.

American Reports

The report of William Speer (SPEER, s)

Statistical data drawn from the Rigby report.

NARA, USCZ, reel 2, W.J. Speer, Consular Report, 26 Nov 1862.

The report of Edward Hines of 1863 (HINES1, h1)

Statistical data for 1 Oct 1862–31 Jul 1863

NARA, USCZ, reel 2, E. Hines to W. Seward, 24 Dec 1863.

The report of Edward Hines of 1864 (HINES2, h2)

Statistical data for 1 Oct 1863–30 Sep 1864, NARA, USCZ, reel 2, Hines to Secretary of State, 25 Oct 1864. See also the published version: “W.E. Hines to W.H. Seward, 25 Oct 1864,” in: New England Merchants in Africa: A History Through Documents 1802 to 1865, ed. by N. Bennett, G. Brooks, Boston, 1965, p. 526.

The report of Edward Ropes Sr. of 1865 (ROPES1, r1)

Statistical data for 1 Aug 1864–31 Jul 1865

NARA, USCZ, reel 2, E. D. Ropes to W. Seward, 5 Oct 1865.

The report of Edward Ropes Sr. of 1867 (ROPES2, r2)

Statistical data for 1 Jul 1865–30 Jun 1867 (only the US trade)

NARA. USCZ, reel 2, E.D. Ropes Sr. to W. Seward, 15 Aug 1867.

The report of Francis Webb of 1871 (WEBB, w)

Statistical data for 1 Oct 1870–30 Sep 1871 (no breakdown by country)

F. Webb, “Report on the Commerce of Zanzibar for the Year Ending September 30, 1871, 12 Nov 1871,” in: House of Representatives, Annual Report on the Commercial Relations between the United States and Foreign Nations Made by the Secretary of State for the Year Ending September, 30, 1872, Washington, 1873, pp. 704–707.

The report of Leonard Bachelder of 1880 (BACHELDER, b)

No date, but uses statistical data from the Zanzibar customs books (no breakdown by country)

L. Bachelder, “Trade of Zanzibar,” in: House of Representatives, Report upon the Commercial Relations of the United States with Foreign Nations for the Years 1880 and 1881, Washington, 1882, pp. 33–36.

Report of Frederick Cheney (CHENEY, ch)

NARA, USCZ, reel 4, Cheney to Third Assistant of the Secretary of State, 1 Jul 1884. See also a published version: Statistical data for 31 Dec 1883–30 Jun 1884 (only the US trade), in: E.D. Ropes Jr., The Zanzibar Letters of Edward D. Ropes, Jr., ed. by N. Bennett, Boston, 1979, pp. 119–123.

French Reports

CADMAE, P. 254

L. Cochet to MAE, 31 Dec 1859 (f. 59)

M. Derche to MAE, 31 Dec 1860 (f. 60)

H. Jabłoński to MAE, 31 Dec 1862 (f. 62)

H. Jabłoński to MAE, 31 Dec 1863 (f. 63)

H. Jabłoński to MAE, 31 Dec 1864 (f. 64)

H. Jabłoński to MAE, 31 Dec 1865 (f. 65)

H. Jabłoński to MAE, 31 Dec 1866 (f. 66)

H. Jabłoński to MAE, 31 Dec 1867 (f. 67)

E. Bure to MAE, 31 Dec 1868 (f. 68)

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