Cardiopulmonary efficeincy evaluation in women between 50 and 80 years of age in Kujawsko-Pomorskie Voivodeship, Poland

Andrzej Chęsy, Gabriel Chęsy, Wojciech Sikorski, Andrzej Rakowski, Paweł Rakowski, Tomasz Zegarski, Katarzyna Dmitruk, Małgorzata Tafil-Klawe



One of major obstacles in social activity routines is aging and all impairments generated by this inevitable process. Thus, in order to facilitate the effective functioning of elderly people within a society, our attention should be drawn to the quickly advancing consequences of aging. The purpose of this study is to evaluate cardiopulmonary efficiency in a chosen group of women above 50 years of age in Kujawsko- Pomorskie Voivodeship. 3413 women, aged 50-80 years participated in the study. Subjects were divided into six age groups. The BMI was calculated for each participant. All women were subjected to a 2-minute step test. All participants completed the study. The results of the ‘2-minute Step’ tests showed a decrease of cardiopulmonary efficiency in women. The downslide was correlated with age. Test results indicate unmistakably that cardiopulmonary efficiency diminishes with age. Secondly, bigger cardiopulmonary efficiency will make it easier for women to cope with everyday work. Finally, cardiopulmonary efficiency is shown here to be a parameter worth improving while creating special health programs for seniors.


circulatory system; fitness test; elderly women; heart rate

Full Text:



Central Statistical Office of Poland; Prognoza Ludności Polski na lata 2008-2035, Warszawa, 2008b;

The Task Force on the Management of Acute Coronary Syndromes of the European Society of Cardiology. Management of acute myocardial infraction in patients presenting with ST-segment elevation. Eur. Heart J. 2003; 24:28-66

Pollock M.L, Evans W.J. Resistance training for health and disease: introduction. Med.Sci.Sports Exerc. 1998; 30:10-11

Donnelly J.E, Blair S.N, Jakcic J.M, Manore M.M, Ranikin J.W, Smith B.K American College of Sports Medicine. Appropriate physical activity intervention strategies for weight loss and prevention of weight regain for adults. Med.Sci.Sports Exerc. 2009; 41:459- 471

Żak M, Grodzicki T. Falls of female patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases – assessment of potential risk factor and individual ability to cope after an anccidental fall. New Medicine 2003; 6:69-72

Rikli R., Jones C.J. Senior Fitness Test Manual. Human Kinetics Publishers; 2001

WHO Regional Office for Europe; Nierówności w zdrowiu w Polsce. 2012; Page 98

Wieczorkowska-Tobis K. Zmiany narządowe w procesie starzenia. Pol.Arch.Med.Wewn. 2008; 118:63-68

Yusuf S, Hawken S, Ounpuu S, et al. Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infraction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): case control study. Lancet 2004; 364: 937-952

Zdrojewski T. Prevelance and awareness of arterial hypertension In Poland and in the world. Postępy Nauk Medycznych 2011; 3:4-10

Polakowska M, Piotrowski W. Socioeconomic factors and prevelance of arterial hypertension in rural and urban areas. Wobasz study. Medycyna Ogólna 2010; 16(XLV), 2: 162-173

Doryńska A, Polak M, Kozela M, Szafraniec K et al. Czynniki ryzyka chorób układu krążenia u dorosłych mieszkańców Krakowa i całej Polski. Wyniki badania Wobasz i polskiej części projektu HAPIEE. Przegląd Epidemiologiczny 2015; 69: 175-180

Sacre J.W, Jennings G, Bronwyn A. Kingwell Exercise and diet ary influences on arterial stiffness in cardiometabloic disease. Hypertension 2014; 63: 888-893

Nyberg M, Seidelin K, Rostgaard Andersen T, Neumann Overby N, Ylva Hellsten, Bangsbo J. Biomarkers of vascular function in premenopausal and recent postmenopausal women of similar age: effect of exercise training. American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 2014; DOI: 10.1152/ajpregu.00539.2013

Evans E, Racette S, Peterson L, Villareal D, Greiwe J, Holloszy J. Aerobic power and insulin action improve in response to endurance exercise training in healthy 77-87 years old. Journal of Applied Physiology 2005; 98:40-45

Traustadottir T, Davies S, Su Yali, Choi Leena, Brown-Borg H, Jackson Roberts, Harman M. Oxidative stress In older adults: effects of physical fitness. AGE 2012; 34:969-982

Miyaki A, Meada S, Choi Y, Akazawa N, Tanabe Y, Ajisaka R. Habitual aerobic exercise increase plasma pentraxin 3 levels In middle-aged and elderly women. Appl.Physiol.Nutr.Metab. 2012; 37:907-911

Molmen-Hansen H, Stolen T, Aamont L, Schjerve Ekeberg I, Tyldum A, Bjork Ingul, Asbjorn Stoylen Aerobic interval training reduces blood pressure and improves myocardial function in hypertensive patients. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology 2011; 19:151- 160

Kostić R, Mladenović I, Mikalaćki M. The relationship between physical/functional fitness and the blood pressure of elderly men and women. Facta Universitatis 2007; Vol.5, 1: 75-84

Kostić R, Pantelić S, Miletić D, Uzunović S, Aleksandrović M. Indicators of physical fitness among the elderly based of the values of their BMI. Facta Universitatis Series: Physical Education and Sport 2012; Vol.10 (1): 1-11

Ignasiak Z, Kaczorowska A, Katan A, Domaradzki J. Evaluation of fitness of elderly women by means of Fullerton Test. Fizjoterapia 2009; 17, 2: 48-52

Zieliński W. Physical ability of polish and American population aged more then 64 years old Annales UMCS Lublin 2005; Vol. LX, SUPPL. XVI, 664, 432-435

Jones J, Rikli R. Measuring functional fitness of older adults. The Journal on Active Ageing 2002; 3:24-30

Bauman A. Use of population attributable risk In under standing the helath benefits of physical activity. British Journal of Sports Medicine 1998; 32(4): 279-280

Liao D, Cai J, Rosamond W et al. Cardiac automatic function and incident coronary heart disease: a population- based case-cohort study. The ARIC Study. Atheosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Am. J. Epidemiol. 1997; 145: 696-706

Hambrecht R, Wolf A, Gielen S et al. Effect of exercise on coronary endothelial function in patients with coronary artery disease. N.Engl. J. Med. 2000; 342: 454-460

Partnerzy platformy czasopism