Dagmara Lewicka, Dawid Książek, Paulina Rożenek, Anna Liisa Westman



The aim of the article is to examine intra-organizational trust as a factor impacting satisfaction with doctoral studies. The study on intra-organizational trust is related to three types of trust: vertical trust, horizontal trust and institutional trust. In turn, perceived satisfaction is linked to knowledge and competences gained at a university (academic satisfaction) and studying atmosphere (satisfaction with atmosphere). Furthermore, the following research questions were addressed in this paper: (1) Does personal experience from the past, current personal experience and the impact of surroundings affect particular types of trust? (2) Do particular types of trust and support provided by a university influence the willingness to take a risk? Therefore, in the underlying research the following factors that may be related to trust have been studied: university's support, willingness to take a risk, personal experience from the past, impact of surroundings. The sample consisted of 41 PhD students (26 women and 16 men). The Jagiellonian University has been represented by 11 doctorate student, where as  AGH University of Science and Technology surveyed 30 PhD students. The results of the study allow to answer the research question by pointing out to particular types of intra-organizational trust at a university as factors that affect PhD students’ satisfaction with doctoral studies. Study presents a positive correlation between intra-organizational trust and satisfaction at a university. Moreover, the impact of institutional trust on academic satisfaction and the influence of trust in lecturer and the impact of horizontal trust on satisfaction from atmosphere has been prove. 


intra-organizational trust; vertical trust; horizontal trust; institutional trust; satisfaction with studding

Full Text:



Andrew, M. (2012), "Supervising doctorates at a distance: three trans‐Tasman stories", Quality Assurance in Education, Vol. 20 No. 1, pp. 42-53.

Arambewela, R., Hall, J. (2009), "An empirical model of international student satisfaction", Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, Vol. 21 No. 4, pp. 555-569. DOI: 10.1108/13555850910997599

Blau, P. M. (1964), Exchange and Power in social life, Wiley, New York.

Buttery, E. A., Richter, E. M., Filho, W. L. (2005), "An overview of the elements that influence efficiency in postgraduate supervisory practice arrangements", International Journal of Educational Management, Vol. 19 No. 1, pp. 7-26.

Chapleo, Ch., Simms, Ch. (2010), "Stakeholder analysis in higher education. A case study of the University of Portsmouth", Perspectives: Policy and Practice in Higher Education, Vol. 14 No. 1, pp. 12-20.

Connell, J., Ferres, N., Travaglione, A. (2003), "Engendering Trust in Manager–Subordinate Relationships: Predictors and Outcomes", Personnel Review, Vol. 32 No. 5, pp. 569–590.

Cropanzano, R., Mitchell, M. S. (2005), "Social exchange theory: an interdisciplinary review", Journal of Management, Vol. 31 No. 6, pp. 874-900. DOI: 10.1177/0149206305279602

Cullen, D. J., Pearson, M., Saha, L., Spear, R. H. (1994), Establishing Effective PhD Supervision, Higher Education Division, Evaluation and Investigations Program, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

De Jong, G., Woolthuis, K. R. (2008), "The Institutional Arrangements of Innovation: Antecedents and Performance Effects of Trust in High–Tech Alliances", Industry and Innovation, Vol. 15 No. 1, pp. 45-67.

Doloriert, C., Sambrook, S., Stewart, J. (2012), "Power and emotion in doctoral supervision: implications for HRD", European Journal of Training and Development, Vol. 36 No. 7, pp.732-750. DOI: 10.1108/03090591211255566

Domaradzka, A., Walczak, D. (2013), "Wartość autoteliczna czy intrumentalna? Rola studiów doktoranckich w opinii kierowników studiów i doktorantów", Nauka i Szkolnictwo Wyższe, No. 2/42, pp. 73-95.

Freeman, R. E. (2010), Strategic Management. A stakeholder approach, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Grudzewski, W. M., Hejduk, I. K., Sankowska, A., Wańtuchowicz, M. (2009), Zarządzanie zaufaniem w przedsiębiorstwie, Wydawnictwo Oficyna, Kraków.

Guinot, J., Chiva, R., Roco-Puig, V. (2014), "Interpersonal trust, stress and satisfaction at work: an empirical study", Personnel Review, Vol. 43 No. 1, pp. 96-115. DOI: 10.1108/PR-02-2012-0043

Hoe, L. S. (2002), "Is interpersonal trust a Necessary Condition for Organizational Learning", Journal of Organisational Transformation and Social Change, Vol. 4 No. 2, pp.149-156.

Krot, K., Lewicka, D. (2012), "The importance of trust in manager –employee relationship", International Journal of Electronic Business Management, Vol. 10 No. 3, pp. 224-333.

Kuklińkski, A. (2003), "Gospodarka oparta na wiedzy-społeczeństwo wiedzy-trajektoria regionalna", Nauka i Szkolnictwo Wyższe, No. 2/22.

Kuo, T. (2013), "How expected benefit and trust influence knowledge sharing", Industrial Management & Data Systems, Vol. 113 No. 4, pp. 506-522. DOI: 10.1108/02635571311322766

Kwaśniewska, K. (2015), "Funkcje Szkoły Wyższej w społeczności lokalnej", Studia z zakresu nauk prawnoustrojowych Miscellanea, No. 5, pp. 267-274.

Lewicka, D., Krot, K. (2015), "The model of HRM-trust-commitment relationship", Industrial Management and Data Systems, Vol. 115 No. 8 pp. 1457-1480. DOI: 10.1108/IMDS-12-2014-0388

Mainhard, T., Rijst, R., Tartwijk, J., Wubbels, T. (2009), "A model for the supervisor–doctoral student relationship", Higher Education, Vol. 58 No. 3, pp 359–373. DOI: 10.1007/s10734-009-9199-8

Mayer, R. C., Davis, J. H., Schoorman, D. (1995), "An integrative model of organizational trust", Acadamy of Management Review, Vol. 20 No. 3, pp. 709-734.

McElroy, M. W. (2002), "Social Innovation Capital", Journal of Intellectual Capital, Vol. 3 No. 1, pp. 30-39.

Moye, M. J., Henkin, A. B., Egley, R. J. (2005), "Teacher‐principal relationships: Exploring linkages between empowerment and interpersonal trust", Journal of Educational Administration, Vol. 43 No. 3, pp. 260-277.

Organ, D. W., Podsakoff, P. M., McKenzie, S. B. (2006), Organizational citizenship behavior: its nature, antecedents, and consequences, Sage, Thousand Oaks.

Pearson, M. (1999), "The changing environment for doctoral education in Australia: implication for quality management, improvement and innovation", Higher Education Research and Development, Vol. 18 No. 3, pp. 269-287.

Perry, R. W., Mankin, L. D. (2010), "Organizational Trust, Trust in the Chief Executives and Work Satisfaction", Public Personel Management, Vol. 36 No. 2, pp. 165-179.

Rowley, J. (2003), "Designing student feedback questionnaires", Quality Assurance in Education, Vol. 11 No. 3, pp. 142-149. DOI: 10.1108/09684880310488454

Sakurai, Y., Pyhältö, K., Lindblom‐Ylänne, S. (2012), "Factors affecting international doctoral students' academic engagement, satisfaction with their studies, and dropping out", International Journal for Researcher Development, Vol. 3 No. 2, pp. 99-117.

Schwabsky, N. (2014), "Teachers’ individual citizenship behavior (ICB): the role of optimism and trust", Journal of Educational Administration, Vol. 52 No. 1, pp. 37-57. DOI: 10.1108/JEA-08-2012-0092

Smith, A., Bradshaw, T., Burnett, K., Docherty, D., Purcell, W., Worthington, S. (2010), "One step beyond: making the most of postgraduate education", report for UK Department for Business Innovation and Skills, London, available at: (accessed 11 May 2016).

Su, F., Wood, M. (2012), "What makes a good university lecturer? Students’ perceptions of teaching excellence", Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, Vol. 4 No. 2, pp.142-155.

Takleab, A. G., Takeuchi, R., Taylor, M. S. (2005), "Extending the Chain of Relationships among Organizational Justice. Social Exchange and Employee Reactions: The role of contract violations", Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 48, pp. 146-157.

Tarvid, A. (2017) "Attracting doctoral students: case of Baltic universities", International

Journal of Educational Management, Vol. 31 No. 7, pp. 1017-1041. DOI: 10.1108/17581181211273110

Tzafrir, S. S., Eitam-Meilik, M. (2005), "The impact of Dowsizing on Trust and Employee Practices in High Tech Firms: A longitudinal analysis", Journal of High Technology Management Research, Vol. 16 No. 2, pp. 193-207. DOI: 10.1016/j.hitech.2005.10.008

Vilkinas, T. (2002), "The PhD process: the supervisor as manager", Education + Training, Vol. 44 No. 3, pp. 129-137. DOI: 10.1108/00400910210424337

Wang, R., Rubenstain-Montano, B. (2002), "The Value of trust in knowledge sharing", in: Proceedings of the 2002 IRMA International Conference, PA: Idea Group Publishing, Hershey, pp. 116-130.

Wnuk-Lipińska, E. (1996), "Uniwersytet dzisiaj - idea, cele i zadania", Nauka i Szkolnictwo Wyższe, No. 2/8, pp. 5-28.

Zhao, F. (2001), “Postgraduate Research Supervision: A Process of Knowledge Management”, available at: (accessed 25 June 2017).

Action funded by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education under the contract number 916/P-DUN/2019 by funds dedicated to dissemination of research findings. Preparing for publication papers in English and employing reviewers affiliated in research institutions abroad in 8 issues of the Journal of Positive Management in 2019-2020: Vol. 10, No. 1-4, Vol. 11, No. 1-4.

Partnerzy platformy czasopism