Influence of anthropogenic factors on microhabitats inhabited by riverine hydrobionts - assessment with MRT method

Zbigniew Osadowski, Krystian Obolewski, Agnieszka Strzelczak



This study concerns the influence of urban area on vegetation and invertebrates inhabiting the Słupia River (northern Poland). Altogether, 10 plant communities and 37 macrozoobenthos taxa were determined during four seasonal samplings (October 2005, January, April and August 2006). In order to reveal how the city of Słupsk affects the vegetation and fauna, MRT (multivariate regression tree) models were created. On their basis the most important factors were determined from the following set of variables: season, water temperature, salinity, distance, water depth, bottom type, location in the river bed and degree of river bed transformations. Performed analyses showed that vegetation in the urban area was primarily influenced by distance (correlated with anthropogenic pressure), while for invertebrates season and temperature were the most important factors.


vegetation; invertebrates; anthropopression; multivariate regression trees; the Słupia River; northern Poland

Full Text:



Allan J. D., 1997, Ekologia wód płynących [Ecology of running waters], PWN, Warszawa.

Barbour M. T., Gerritsen J., Griffith G. E., Frydenborg R., McCarron E., White J. S. & Bastian M. L., 1996, A framework for biological criteria for Florida streams using benthic macroinvertebrates, Journal of the North American Benthological Society 15 (2): 185 - 211. DOI:

Barbour M. T., Gerritsen J., Snyder B. D. & Stribling J. B., 1997, Revision to rapid bioassessment protocols for use in streams and rivers. Periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. http://www.epa./gov/owowwtr1/monitoring/AWPD/RBP/html

Böhmer J., Rawer-Jost C., Kappus B., Blank J., Hock C. & Siber R., 1999, Integrierte ökologische Fließgewässerbewertung - Erarbeitung von Grundlagen zur leitbildorientierten biologischen Fließgewässerbewertung im Mittelgebirge. Handbuch Angewandte Limnologie. ecomed, Supplement, Landsberg: 52 pp + 68.

Breiman L., Friedman J. H., Olshen R. A. & Stone C. G., 1984, Classification and regression trees. Wadsworth International Group, Belmont, California, USA.

De'ath G., 2002, Multivariate regression trees: A new technique for modelling species-environment relationships, Ecology 83: 1105 - 1117.

De'ath G. & Fabricus K. E., 2000, Classification and regression trees: A powerful and simple technique for ecological data analysis, Ecology 81: 3178 - 3192.

Dufrene M. & Legendre P., 1997, Species assemblages and indicator species: The need for a flexible asymmetrical approach, Ecological Monographs 67: 345 - 366.

Ellenberg H., Weber H. R., Düll R., Wirth V., Werner W. & Paulissen D., 1992, Zeigerwerte von Pflanzen im Mitteleuropa, 2. Aufl., Verlag Erich Goltze KG, Göttingen: 258.

European Union 2000, Directive 2000//EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of Europe establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy, PE-CONS 3639/00, Brussels, 30 June 2000.

ISO 4365, Liquid flow in open channels - Sediment in streams and canals - Determination of concentration, particle size distribution and relative density.

ISO 9195, Liquid flow in open channels - Sampling and analysis of gravel - bed material.

Kajak Z., 1998, Hydrobiologia - limnologia [Hydrobiology - limnology], Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Warszawa.

Kasprzak K., 1986, Aquatic and terrestial Oligochaeta II. Enchytraeidae, Museum and Institute of Zoology PAN, Warszawa.

Matuszkiewicz W., 2001, Przewodnik do oznaczania zbiorowisk roślinnych Polski [Guide for identification of plant communities in Poland], Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Warszawa.

McAleece N., Lambshead J., Patterson G., Gage J., 1997, BioDiversity. Profesional Beta, The Natural History Museum, London & The Scottish Association of Marine Science, Oban, Scotland.

Medwecka-Kornaś A., Kornaś J., Pawłowski B. & Zarzycki K., 1972, Przegląd zbiorowisk lądowych i słodkowodnych [Review of terrestial and freshwater plant communities], [in:] W. Szafer & K. Zarzycki (eds.), Szata roślinna Polski, vol. 1 [Vegetation of Poland, vol. 1], PWN, Warszawa: 237 - 501.

Moog O., Bauernfeind E. & Weichselbaumer P., 1997, The use of Ephemeroptera as saprobic indicators in Austria, [in:] P. Landolt & M. Sartori (eds.), Ephemeroptera and Plecoptera: Biology - Ecology - Systematics, MTL, Fribourg: 254 - 260.

Obolewski K., Huzar J. & Grigielis A., 2004, Annelida rzeki Słupia [Annelida of the Słupia River], Badania Fizjograficzne nad Polską zachodnią [Physiographic Studies in Western Poland], C, 50: 7 - 19.

Piechura J., Walczowski W. & Beszczyńska-Möller A., 1997, On the structure and dynamics of the water in the Slupsk Furrow, Oceanologica 39: 35 - 54.

R Development Core Team, 2004, R: A language and environment for statistical computing, R Foundation for Statistical computing

Turoboyski L., 1979, Hydrobiologia techniczna [Technical hydrobiology], PWN, Warszawa.

Partnerzy platformy czasopism