Ecological Questions <p>An International Journal on Controversial Problems of Ecology. Published 4 times a year in free of charge open access model.</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Q2 in ranking of Scopus </strong></span></p> <p><strong>EQ SCOPUS CiteScore 2021 1.9 </strong></p> <p><strong>JCR </strong><strong>Web of Science™ Journal Citation Indicator (JCI) 2021 0.260 </strong></p> <p><strong>Special Issue</strong><br /><a href=""><strong>“Exploring the scientific literature on controversial and timely ecological questions”</strong></a><br />Last submission date: <strong>December 30th, 2022. </strong>See announcements.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong> </strong></p> Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu en-US Ecological Questions 1644-7298 Seedling Recruitment of Rhododendron arboreum: an important NTFP species of North-Western Himalaya, India <p>We examined the recruitment, survival, mortality, growth, and development of <em>Rhododendron arboreum </em>Smith, one of the important Non- Timber forest Product species (NTFPs). Ten permanent plots (10 x 10 m<sup>2</sup>) were created in four sites of mixed broad-leaved temperate forests of Garhwal Himalaya. We measured seedling shoot length and collar diameter at the beginning of the experiment and re-measured at three-month intervals with maximum seedling recruitment recorded in Triguginaryan (36.36 %, during Nov and Aug), and most seedlings were found established either on the boundary or in either partially or fully gaps. While a higher rate of mortality occurred in the winter season. Maximum height increment for seedlings was recorded in Adhwani (1.005 cm<sup>-1</sup>). <em>R. arboreum</em> recorded the highest recruitment during post-rainy, with an overall increment of 0.60 cm<sup>-1</sup>. Seasonal variations were seen in the overall relative growth rate for height (RGRH) for <em>Rhododendron</em> seedlings. Seasonal variation in temperature and light is a crucial factor in determining growth. Because of the favorable temperature and soil moisture during the rainy season, vigorous shoot growth continued for the longest period of time at all four sites. The current study's findings also show that seedlings develop and survive better in gaps than in the understory. The current study also demonstrates that ideal soil moisture and temperature conditions are essential for seedling growth and development.</p> Kaiser Iqbal A. K Negi Dr Nazir A. Pala N.P Todaria Copyright (c) 2023 Kaiser Iqbal, A. K Negi, Dr Nazir A. Pala, N.P Todaria 2023-03-20 2023-03-20 34 3 1 19 10.12775/EQ.2023.029 Sacred groves: the gene banks of threatened and ethnomedicinal flora, associated taboos and role in biodiversity conservation in the Peer Panchal range of North Western Himalayas, India <p>Sacred groves are the traditionally managed small or large patches of relict vegetation conserved on religious beliefs and representing the climax vegetation. These sacred patches have some set of traditional rules or protocols called taboos, which are key to the conservation of the sacred groves and the diversity within. Interestingly, every sacred grove has its legends, myths, taboos, and lores which are an integral part of the sacred groves. Sacred groves act as a gene bank for the threatened and endemic flora and fauna diversity, which are either diminishing from the open forest areas are somewhere some species get cleared however, these are still found in good numbers in the sacred groves. The sacred forests are the powerhouse of important ethnomedicinal flora, and several important medicinal plants are housed in these sacred patches. In the Peer Panchal region, these sacred patches play a pivotal role in the conservation of vegetation, however, in the present era of modernity and development, these sacred patches are facing high anthropogenic pressure due to the erosion of traditional knowledge and beliefs, leading to high rate of deteriorations of these life savior patches of forests. The present work reviews the sacred groves in the Peer Panchal region of Northwestern Himalayas, intending to highlight their role in maintaining a balance in our ecosystem and the need to recognize their values and the proper need for the conservation of these life-savior patches of forests.</p> MUSHTAQ AHMED VANDANA SHARMA MANJUL DHIMAN Copyright (c) 2023 MUSHTAQ AHMED, VANDANA SHARMA, MANJUL DHIMAN 2023-03-20 2023-03-20 34 3 1 20 10.12775/EQ.2023.030 Conservation Management Model of Subayang River in the Kampar Regency, Province of Riau based on Local Wisdom using Belida Fish (Chitala sp.) as Bioindicator <p>This research was conducted on the Subayang River in Kampar Regency, Riau Province, Indonesia, from January to December 2019. This research aims to determine the physical and chemical water characteristics of the Subayang River and the trend of the Belida fish (<em>Chitalla</em> sp.) population for constructing a river conservation management model based on local wisdom. To investigate the water's physical characteristics, a water sample was acquired from the Subayang river on three stations (upstream, middle stream, and downstream). The water sample was collected on each station iteratively at three different points at the river stream's left, middle, and right sides. The trend of Belida fish population data was gathered from interviews with the fishermen. Moreover, interviews with the traditional figure of the society around the Subayang river were also conducted. Then, the conservation model of the Subayang river was constructed by analyzing the interview and the population of Belida fish results using a system dynamic model. The investigation of the water’s physical and chemical properties shows that the Subayang river has a suitable environment for the growth of Belida fish. However, the Belida fish population trend in the last four years tends to decrease. The existence of "<em>lubuk larangan</em>" and "<em>pantang larang adat</em>", are local wisdom that gives a positive affection towards the Belida fish population. Those traditional rules can restrict citizens from doing illegal fishing which hardly affects the Belida fish population.</p> Darmadi Ahmad Sukendi Sukendi Zulfan Saam Suwondo Copyright (c) 2023 Darmadi Ahmad, Sukendi Sukendi, Zulfan Saam, Suwondo 2023-03-20 2023-03-20 34 3 1 23 10.12775/EQ.2023.025 Spatio-temporal analysis of the Brantas river water quality status by using principal component weighted index (PCWI) <p>River, as one of the surface water resources, has faced many contaminations due to domestic and industrial activities in its surrounding, and thus routine water quality monitoring is required. This activity yields a large number of water quality characteristics that can be very useful to evaluate the status of river quality status. In this study, we integrated a statistical multivariate analysis such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and conventional Water Quality Index (WQI) measure to produce a data-driven composite index for water quality assessment. We implemented this technique to evaluate the status of Brantas River, the largest river in East Java Province-Indonesia, using a long-term dataset collected from 2012 to 2021. The study area was divided into three classes: upstream, midstream, and downstream. Results of the study suggested that the pollution level in the Brantas River fluctuates yearly. Meanwhile, the degree of contamination increased from upstream to downstream.</p> Evellin Dewi Lusiana Mohammad Mahmudi Muhammad Musa Maria Alfonsa Okta Primadhita Syahrijal Putra Jumpa Priodi Silalahi Sunadji Sunadji Nanik Retno Buwono Copyright (c) 2023 Evellin Dewi Lusiana, Mohammad Mahmudi, Muhammad Musa, Maria Alfonsa Okta Primadhita, Syahrijal Putra, Jumpa Priodi Silalahi, Sunadji Sunadji, Nanik Retno Buwono 2023-03-20 2023-03-20 34 3 1 16 10.12775/EQ.2023.028 Spatio-temporal Fluctuation of Temperature Using Specific Climate Indices in South Xinjiang, China <p>Temperature and precipitation are significant variables that can be used to determine the climatic variability in a region. This research study has focused on temperature, which is significant for the study of climatic variability over a long period in an area. The temperature has been assessed spatially and temporally in South Xinjiang, China using various climate indices. The temporal data about the temperature of seventeen meteorological stations were acquired from the Chinese Meteorology Administration (CMA) from 1980 to 2018. The Mann-Kendall (MK) trend test and Sen’s Slope (SS) statistical models were used to quantify the magnitude and temporal trend. The monthly and seasonal analysis of temperature reveals a significant increasing trend in mean maximum, mean minimum and average temperatures in the study area. The Sen’s Slope test results indicate an increasing monthly and seasonal temperature trend in almost all meteorological stations. The increasing trend in temperature is mainly due to the desert type of climate of the region that is gradually further aggravating with every passing year. This increasing temperature trend will smoothen the way for perpetual drought in the region in the future. Therefore, this research would be beneficial for future planning and management of water resources in the region and for making preventive measures to mitigate the impacts of climate change in the study area.</p> Ahmad Ali Khan Zhao Yuanjie Jamil Khan Ghani Rahman Muhammad Rafiq Copyright (c) 2023 Ahmad Ali Khan, Zhao Yuanjie, Jamil Khan, Ghani Rahman, Muhammad Rafiq 2023-03-20 2023-03-20 34 3 1 30 10.12775/EQ.2023.026