Ecological Questions <p>An International Journal on Controversial Problems of Ecology. Published 4 times a year.</p><p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Q4 in ranking of Scopus and Web of Science</strong></span></p><p><strong>EQ SCOPUS CiteScore 2020 1.2 </strong></p><p><strong></strong><strong>In 2020 included in JCR </strong><strong>Web of Science™ 0.2</strong></p><p><strong> </strong></p><p><strong> </strong></p> Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu en-US Ecological Questions 1644-7298 Social Consequences of Vehicle Exhaust: A Case Study in Poltava, Ukraine <p>Intensive urbanization processes, an increase in the number of urban population and transport have led to an increase in the technogenic load on the environment, in particular on the atmospheric air. Among a significant number of sources of environmental pollution, roads and vehicles pose a significant threat. Motor vehicles cause irreparable harm to human health and the environment. Regular assessment of the quality of atmospheric air in residential areas of cities with heavy traffic to establish the level of potential risk to public health is an urgent task. The study purpose is the social consequences of transport emissions; determination of the anthropogenic load on the air and of the indicator of public health risk from the vehicle exhaust impact. The study was carried out on the example of the residential and the most loaded transport area of Poltava (Ukraine). The study demonstrates that the overwhelming majority of the urban population lives in areas where health risk indicators exceed permissible norms. Since the elderly, children and students are most often present on the street and near houses, they are at the greatest risk. The same applies to vehicle drivers who are often idle in "traffic jams". In turn, such high levels of air pollution pose even greater risks to public health, in particular to the development of respiratory diseases. In the study of the peculiarities of Ukrainian legislation in this area, it was established that the mechanism for collecting information about the quality of the environment, however, there is no requirement to inform the population about it.</p> Olena Stepova Olena Hanoshenko Tetyana Serha Natalia Yesina Olena Strelnikova Copyright (c) 2021 Olena Stepova, Olena Hanoshenko, Tetyana Serha, Natalia Yesina, Olena Strelnikova 2021-12-15 2021-12-15 33 1 1 32 10.12775/EQ.2022.006 The effectiveness of acaricidic drugs based on herbal raw material <p>Limitation the number of ixodes ticks is one of the most important tasks of modern science and requires the search for new, highly effective and environmentally hazardous acaricides, so our experiment was aimed at identifying acaricidal properties of essential oils and their individual active components in the population of ixodes ticks in Zaporizhzhia region. The study of acaricidal properties of essential oils was performed in the laboratory conditions. Tampons with wool were soaked in various concentrations of 0.5%, 1%, 3%, 5% and 10% aqueous emulsion of essential oils such as <em>Caryophyllus floris aetheroleum</em> and <em>Limonis aetheroleum</em>, and essential oils of <em>Thymus serpyllum </em>L., <em>Рinus sylvestris </em>L., <em>Salvia officinalis </em>L., <em>Mentha </em>x <em>piperita </em>L. and <em>Eucalyptus viminalis </em>Labill. The essential oils had a significant effect on the lifespan of adult ticks. The results showed the acaricidal effect of <em>Thymus serpyllum</em> essential oils. When searching the acaricidal and repellent properties of individual essential oils components thymole, menthol and citral showed the high activity as acaricides. In the same time, eugenol and borneol proved the effectiveness as repellent. Our research schowed that essential oils are promising as alternative methods of controlling the number of Ixodes ticks in areas where there are conditions for infection with tick infections.</p> Nataliya Voronova Valeriy Horban Viktoriia Bohatkina Copyright (c) 2021 Nataliya Voronova, Valeriy Horban, Viktoriia Bohatkina 2021-12-15 2021-12-15 33 1 1 25 10.12775/EQ.2022.003 Presence of native trees in rural tribal homegardens doesn’t necessarily mean conservation: A case study from Mishmi belt of Arunachal Pradesh, India <p>Increasing human population and various developmental activities in the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh, which lies in one of the most bio-diverse regions of the world, has caused large-scale deforestation, pushing a large number of native tree species to the serious verge of elimination from their native forest. In such tribal-dominated landscapes around the world, myriads of studies have emphasized the potential of homegardens as a site for local biodiversity conservation as they are known to have a huge Indigenous Knowledge System (IKS) on the use of diverse native floras. The present study was, therefore, undertaken to investigate if the native communities of the Mishmi tribe conserved native indigenous tree species in their homegardens and if they are grown then what is the future of these tree species? It was hypothesized that harbouring greater indigenous knowledge implies greater domestication of tree species in their homegardens. Altogether, 103 species of trees were recorded from 243 homegardens in the present study. Although the native species constituted more than half of the species diversity, they, however, greatly lagged in all other aspects of the study such as population share, frequency distribution and regeneration potential. Native tree species constituted just 37% of the total tree population. Only two species, <em>Bauhinia variegata</em> L. and <em>Alnus nepalensis </em>D. Don<em>,</em> made up the major bulk of the native population. In terms of frequency distribution, only a handful of native species maintained a decent presence in the homegardens. Most of the native species grew naturally in unmanaged homegardens. The regeneration potential of all native species was very poor, including <em>B. variegata</em>. The study demonstrates that out of the 76 native species recorded from the region, only 7 species can rightfully be regarded as being domesticated by virtue of IKS of the Mishmi community. Our study concludes that the native species do exist in large number in homegardens of the rural tribal areas, but most of the native wild species exist in the rural homegardens not because they are planted/preferred but because they just happen to randomly grow there since most of the homegardens of tribal household are unmanaged or poorly managed, thereby giving way to wild species to germinate, at least until the owner decides to weed them out.</p> Inda Mihu Dipankar Borah Sumpam Tangjang Copyright (c) 2021 Inda Mihu, Dipankar Borah, Sumpam Tangjang 2021-12-15 2021-12-15 33 1 10.12775/EQ.2022.001 Progeny testing of Pinus sylvestris L. of seed orchard in different environmental conditions <p>Evaluation of the&nbsp;&nbsp; progeny test of plus trees of Scots pine - a necessary condition for determining the prospects the use of improved seeds in different environmental conditions. The paper presents the results of the study of the progeny test of groups of clones of plus trees of Scots pine selected according to certain characteristics in Northern Steppe and South Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. Analysis of results showed: a significant improvement in the growth rates of the all testing progenies of seed orchard in the better climatic and soil conditions of South Forest-Steppe between the ages of 3 and 10 years. At the same time 4 out of 5 studied progenies worsened their growth indicators relative to local control at the age of 3 to 26 years in less optimal climatic and soil conditions of Northern Steppe. The leader in the steppe conditions was the progeny of a fraction of three clones, which had the highest seed productivity. The selection of the fastest growing clones and the rejection of the slowest growing ones had a positive effect on the growth of progenies of seed orchards at both test points.</p> Olga Mazhula Yaroslav Fuchylo Yuriy Hayda Mykola Kharytonov Svitlana Matkovcka Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-15 2021-12-15 33 1 1 14 10.12775/EQ.2022.002 Occurrence of Viscum album subsp. album L. on Laburnum anagyroides Medik. in Toruń, Poland <p>This short note presents two localities of the common mistletoe growing on the common laburnum found in central Poland in the city of Toruń in 2020. The common laburnum is one of the rare hosts of this recently rapidly spreading semi-parasite. The presented relationship between the two species has so far been reported in only several publications, mostly from the late 19th and early 20th century.</p> Andrzej Nienartowicz Lucjan Rutkowski Dariusz Kamiński Mieczysław Kunz Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-15 2021-12-15 33 1 1 7 10.12775/EQ.2022.005 Biofortification of Oryza sativa L. with agri-food waste to improve the dietary value of crops <p>Due to the low dietary value of crops, Zn-deficient soils and insufficient intake of other minerals, soil fortification is often necessary. Fortification is defined as the addition of one or more crucial nutrients to a food to reduce poverty in a population or specific population groups. Currently available technologies for rice fortification with vitamins and minerals are high-energy and time-consuming methods. Therefore, mineral enrichment of crops has received much attention from scientists. The originality of the current study consists in determining the optimal use of hard hazelnut shells, orange peel and rice husks for enrichment of paddy soil and simultaneous immobilization of heavy metals. The combination of the identified wastes, namely hazelnut shells, orange peel and rice husks, showed good potential for immobilization/elimination or reduction of heavy metals to less than permissible limits. Therefore, the use of this combination could be an effective strategy to both introduce new micronutrients into rice grain and remove heavy metals.</p> Paris Ziarati Luis Cruz Rodriguez Bernhard Hochwimmer Viola Vambol Sergij Vambol Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-15 2021-12-15 33 1 1 13 10.12775/EQ.2022.004