Assessment of woody species diversity and composition along a disturbance gradient in Behali Reserve Forest of Biswanath district, Assam, India

Dipankar Borah, Biswajit Das, Sumpam Tangjang, Abhaya Prasad Das, Anatoliy A. Khapugin

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12775/EQ.2021.009

Abstract


The present study was carried out in Behali Reserve Forest, a semi-evergreen forest of Assam, India to record and analyze the woody species diversity and community characteristics using random sampling. Altogether, 35 quadrats (20 m × 20 m) were randomly established and studied from August 2018 to April 2019 spreading across nine study sites. A total of 128 (118 identified and 10 unidentified) woody species from 83 genera and 43 families were found in the sampled area of 1.4 ha. Lauraceae with 19 species was the richest family by species followed by Euphorbiaceae and Phyllanthaceae (eight species each). Altogether, 787 individuals were recorded from the sampled plots and the stand density ranged between 250 individuals × ha-1 to 725 individuals × ha-1 with mean stand density of 543 individuals × ha-1. Species-wise density analysis revealed that Magnolia hodgsonii (96.43 individuals × ha-1) has the maximum tree density. Plot wise analysis showed that Dikal (58.32 m2 × ha-1) recorded the maximum basal area as well as the equitability index of 0.95. In Serelia, we recorded the highest Simpson index (0.92), Shannon H index (2.76), Brillouin index (2.11), Menhinick (3.49), Margalef (5.29) and Fisher alpha index (26.59). In Radhasu, we recorded maximum evenness (0.90), dominance (0.58) and Berger-Parker index (0.65). The maximal values of Chao index (38.53) was recorded in Hatimara. Our study also revealed that diversity was maximal for the community under medium level of disturbance in the reserve, while communities under the lowest and highest disturbance pressure had minimal diversity. The Behali Reserve Forest exhibited a great species richness (118 species), mean basal area (44.42 m2 × ha-1) and stand density (in total, 788 individuals per study area of 1.4 ha) compared to the other forests of the northeastern region of India.

Keywords


basal area; Eastern Himalaya; population structure; semi-evergreen forest; species richness

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ali S., Tripura A., Kikhi S., Thungon L.T., Deka J. & Tripathi O.P., 2015, Species diversity, community characteristic and population structure in disturbed and undisturbed forest of Sepahijala Wildlife Sanctuary, Tripura. International Journal of Current Research 7(4): 15342–15349.

Barua K.N., Gogoi G. & Hazarika P., 2018, Comparative study on structural composition and community association of Nambor Wildlife Sanctuary and its South-Westward extended Bornewria forest, Assam, India. Tropical Plant Research 5(2): 233–242.

Berger W.H. & Parker F.L., 1970, Diversity of Planktonic Foraminifera in Deep-Sea Sediments. Science 168: 1345-1347.

Bhat D.M., Naik M.B., Patagar S.G., Hegde G.T., Kanade Y.G., Hegde G.N., Shastri C.M., Shetti D.M. & Furtado R.M., 2000, Forest dynamics in tropical rain forests of Uttra Khannada district in Western Ghats, India. Current Science 79: 975–985.

Bora A. & Bhattacharyya D., 2017, Phytodiversity of Barail Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam, India: field-based observation-I. Trees and lianas, Checklist 13(6): 1037–1053.

Borah D., Kafley P., Tangjang S. & Das A.P., 2018, Population structure and conservation of endangered Citrus indica Yu.Tanaka (Rutaceae) in Behali Reserve Forest of Assam, India. Pleione 12(2): 181–186.

Borah D., Taram M., Das A.P., Tangjang S. & Do T.V., 2019a. Aristolochia assamica (Aristolochiaceae), a new species from the East Himalayas. Annales Botanici Fennici 56: 253-257.

Borah D., Kafley P., Das A.P., Tangjang S. & Averynov L., 2019b, Chlorophytum assamicum (Asparagaceae), a new species from Northeast India. Phytotaxa 394 (1): 123–125.

Borah D., Tanaka N., Averyanov L.V., Taram M., Roy D.K., 2020a, Rediscovery of Tupistra stoliczkana (Asparagaceae) in northeastern India and the identity of T. ashihoi. Phytotaxa 443(2): 207–210.

Borah D., Taram M., Tangjang S., Upadhyaya A., Tanaka N., 2020b, Peliosanthes macrophylla var. assamensis (Asparagaceae), a new variety from Behali Reserve Forest in Assam, Northeast India. Blumea 65: 121–125.

Borah N. & Garkoti S.C., 2011, Tree species composition, diversity and regeneration pattern in undisturbed and disturbed forests of Barak Valley, South Assam, India. International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences 37(3): 131–141.

Borah N., Rabha D. & Athokpam F.D., 2016, Tree species diversity in tropical forests of Barak valley in Assam, India. Tropical Plant Research 3(1): 1–9.

Borogayary B., Das A.K. & Nath A.J., 2017, Tree species composition and population structure of a secondary tropical evergreen forest in Cachar district, Assam. Journal of Environmental Biology 39(1): 67–71.

Borthakur S.K., 1976, Less known medicinal uses of plants among the tribes of Karbi Anglong (Mikir Hills), Assam. Records of the Botanical Survey of India 18(1–4): 166–176.

Brockerhoff E.G., Jactel H., Parrotta J.A., Quine C.P. & Sayer J., 2008, Plantation forests and biodiversity: oxymoron or opportunity? Biodiversity and Conservation 17: 925–951.

Brokaw N.V.L., 1985, Tree falls, regrowth and community structure in tropical forests, [in:] T.A. Pickett & P.S. White (eds.), The Ecology of Natural Disturbances and Patch Dynamics. Academic Press, Orlando, Florida, pp. 53–69.

Champion S.H. & Seth S.K., 1968, A revised survey of the forest types of India. Manager of Publications, Delhi: 1–404.

Chao A., 1984, Non-parametric estimation of the number of classes in a population.

Scandinavian Journal of Statistics 11: 265-270.

Chifundera K.Z., 2019, Using diversity indices for identifying the priority sites for herpetofauna conservation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Nature Conservation Research 4(3): 13–33.

Curtis J.T., 1959, The Vegetation of Wisconsin. An Ordination of Plant Communities. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 657 pp.

Das A.K., Singha L.B. & Khan M.L., 2017, Community structure and species diversity of Pinus merkusii Jungh. & de Vriese forest along an altitudinal gradient in Eastern Himalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, India. Tropical Ecology 58(2): 397–408.

Deb P. & Sundriyal R.C., 2007, Tree species gap phase performance in the buffer zone area of Namdapha National Park, Eastern Himalaya, India. Tropical Ecology 48(2): 209–225.

Deb P. & Sundriyal R.C., 2011, Vegetation dynamics of an old-growth lowland tropical rainforest in North-east India: species composition and stand heterogeneity. International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation 3: 405–430.

Deka U. & Sarma S.K., 2016, Aquatic plant community characteristics of some major wetlands of Nalbari district of Assam and resource collection from it by the people of its vicinities. International Journal of Current Research 8(6): 33202–33204.

Dutta G. & Devi A., 2013a, Plant diversity and community structure in tropical moist deciduous sal (Shorea robusta Gaertn.) forest of Assam, Northeast India. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 1(3): 1–4.

Dutta G. & Devi A., 2013b, Plant diversity, population structure and regeneration status in disturbed tropical forests in Assam, northeast India. Journal of Forestry Research 24(4): 715–720.

Elliott K.J. & Swank W.T., 1994, Changes in tree species-diversity after successive clear cuts in the southern Appalachians. Vegetation 115: 11–18.

Elouard C., Pelissier R., Houllier F., Pascal J.P., Durand M., Aravajy S.., Moravie M.A., Gimaret-Carpentier C. & Ramesh B.R., 1997, Monitoring the structure and dynamics of a dense moist evergreen forest in the Western Ghats (Kodagu district, Karnataka, India). Tropical Ecology 38: 193–214.

Gordon J.E. & Newton A.C., 2006, The potential misapplication of rapid plant diversity assessment in tropical conservation. Journal for Nature Conservation 14: 117–126.

Hajra, P.K. & Jain S.K., 1978, Flora of Kaziranga National Park. Unpublished manuscript.

Hernandez A., 2018, On the distribution of Bolitoglossa altamazonica and B. peruviana (Caudata: Plethodontidae) in the Peruvian Amazon with observations on their ecology and conservation. Nature Conservation Research, 3(Suppl.1): 131–135.

Hooker J.D. & Thomson T., 1855, Flora Indica: being a systematic account of the plants of British India, together with observations on the structure and affinities of their natural orders and genera, vol. 1. W. Pamplin, London.: 285 pp.

Hossain M.K., Hossain M. & Alam M.K., 1997, Diversity and structural composition of trees in Bamu reserved forest of Cox’s Bazar forest division, Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Forest Science 26(1): 31–42.

Jain S.K. & Rao R.R., 1977, A handbook of field and herbarium methods. Today & Tomorrow’s Printers & Publishers, New Delhi, 107 pp.

Jayakumar R. & Nair K.K.N., 2013, Species Diversity and Tree Regeneration Patterns in Tropical Forests of the Western Ghats, India. Hindawi Publishing Corporation-ISRN Ecology, Article ID 890862, 14 pp.

Kachroo P., 1953, Ferns of Assam, Asian Journal of Social Science 29: 161–174.

Kanjilal U.N., Kanjilal P.C., Das A. & De R.N., 1934–1940, Flora of Assam, volumes 1–4. Government of Assam, Shillong.

Kar S.K. & Panigrahi G., 1963, The Rubiaceae in Assam and North East Frontier Agency. Nelumbo 5(3–4): 227–237.

Khali M. & Bhatt V.P, 2014, Community structure of Montane forest along the altitudinal gradient in Garhwal Himalaya, India. Journal of Ecology and the Natural Environment 6(6): 205-214.

Kushwaha S.P.S. & Nandy S., 2012, Species diversity and community structure in sal (Shorea robusta) forests of two different rainfall regimes in West Bengal, India. Biodiversity and Conservation 21: 1215–1228.

Lambshead P.J.D., Platt H.M. & Shaw K.M., 1983, Detection of differences among assemblages of marine benthic species based on an assessment of dominance and diversity. Journal of Natural History 17: 859–874.

Loushambam R.S., Singh N.R., Taloh A. & Mayanglambam S., 2017, Bamboo in North East India. Indian Journal of Hill Farming 30(2): 181–185.

Magurran A., 1988, Ecological Diversity and Its Measurement. Princeton University Press, New Jersey, 192 pp.

Majumdar K. & Datta B.K., 2015, Cachar tropical semi-evergreen forest type of Northeast India: status of species diversity, distribution and population structure. Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology and Environmental Sciences 5(4): 104–127.

Margalef R., 1958, Temporal succession and spatial heterogeneity in phytoplankton. In: Perspectives in Marine biology, Buzzati-Traverso (ed.), Univ. Calif. Press, Berkeley, pp. 323-347.

Menhinick E.F., 1964, A Comparison of Some Species-Individuals Diversity Indices Applied to Samples of Field Insects. Ecology 45: 859-861.

Mishra B.P., Tripathi O.P. & Laloo R.C., 2005, Community characteristics of a subtropical forest of Meghalaya and population structure of ten important tree species. Tropical Ecology 46(2): 241–251.

Mishra R.K., Parhi S. & Biswal A.K., 2018, Diversity of over storey plant communities of tropical forest covers of Balasore district, Odisha, India. Advances in Plants and Agriculture Research 8(1): 20‒26.

Mohd-Azlan J., Kaicheen S.S. & Yoong W.C., 2018, Distribution, relative abundance and occupancy of selected mammals along paved road in Kubah National Park, Sarawak, Borneo. Nature Conservation Research 3(2): 36–46.

Murphy P.G. & Lugo A.E., 1986, Ecology of Tropical Dry Forest, Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 17(1): 67–88.

Naidu M.T., Premavani D., Suthari S. & Venkaiah M., 2018, Assessment of tree diversity in tropical deciduous forests of North central Eastern Ghats, India. Geology, Ecology, and Landscapes 2(3): 216–227.

Nath P.C., Arunachalam A., Khan M.L., Arunachalam K. & Barbhuiya A.R., 2005, Vegetation analysis and tree population structure of tropical wet evergreen forests in and around Namdapha National Park, Northeast India. Biodiversity and Conservation 14: 2109–2136.

Nath T.K., Hossain M.K. & Alam M.K., 1998, Diversity and composition of trees in Sitapahar forest reserve of Chittagong hill tracts (south) forest division, Bangladesh. Annals of Forestry 6(1): 1–9.

Palei H.S., Palei N.C., Rath B.P. & Mishra A.K., 2019, Records of the globally threatened Rusty-spotted cat in Odisha, India. Nature Conservation Research 4(3): 112–116.

Parthasarathy N., Kinbal V. & Kumar L.P., 1992, Plant species diversity and human impact in tropical wet evergreen forests of southern Western Ghats. Indo-French Workshop on tropical forest ecosystem: Natural Functioning and Anthropogenic Impact. French Institute, Pondicherry, India.

Platt H.M., Shaw K.M. & Lambshead P.J.D., 1984, Nematode species abundance patterns and their use in the detection of environmental perturbations. Hydrobiologia 118: 59–66.

Rao A.S. & Verma D.M., 1970, Materials towards a monocot flora of Assam-I (

Hydrocharitaceae and Burmanniaceae). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of

India 12 (1-4): 139-143.

Rao A.S. & Verma D.M., 1971, Materials towards a monocot flora of Assam

(Taccaceae and Dioscoreaceae). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 12

(1-4): 127-200.

Rao A.S. & Verma D.M., 1972, Materials towards a monocot flora of Assam- II

(Zingiberaceae and Marantaceae). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 14 (1-4): 114-143.

Rao A.S. & Verma D.M., 1972, Materials towards a monocot flora of Assam-III

(Taccaceae, Dioscoreaceae and Stemonaceae). Bulletin of the Botanical

Survey of India 15 (3-4): 189-209.

Rao A.S. & Verma D.M., 1973, Materials towards a monocot flora Assam-

IV (Pontederiaceae, Xylaridaceae and Commelinaceae). Bulletin of the

Botanical Survey of India 16: (1-4): 1-20.

Rao A.S. & Verma D.M., 1976, Materials towards a monocot flora Assam – V (

Flagellariaceae, Juncaceae, Typhaceae, Sparganiaceae, Alismataceae,

Butomaceae, Aponogetonaceae, Potamogetonaceae and Eriocaulaceae).

Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 18 (1-4): 1-48.

Sagar R. & Singh J.S., 2005, Structure, diversity, and regeneration of tropical dry deciduous forest of northern India. Biodiversity and Conservation 14: 935–959.

Sahoo T., Panda P.C. & Acharya L., 2017, Structure, composition and diversity of tree species in tropical moist deciduous forests of Eastern India: a case study of Nayagarh Forest Division, Odisha. Journal of Forestry Research 28, 1219–1230.

Saikia P. & Khan M.L., 2016, Tree species diversity and its population and regeneration status in homegardens of upper Assam, Northeast India. Journal of Forest and Environmental Science 32(2): 129–139.

Saikia P., Deka J., Bharali S., Kumar A., Tripathi O.P., Singh L.B., Dayanandan S. & Khan M.L., 2017, Plant diversity patterns and conservation status of eastern Himalayan forests in Arunachal Pradesh, Northeast India, Forest Ecosystems, 4: 28.

Sarkar M. & Devi A., 2014, Assessment of diversity, population structure and regeneration status of tree species in Hollangapar Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam, Northeast India. Tropical Plant Research 1(2): 26–36.

Sarma K.S. & Borah B., 2014, Phytosociological investigation of aquatic macrophytes of five wetlands of Sonitpur district of Assam, India. Annals of Biological Research 5(9): 38–45.

Sarma P.K., Borah R., Upadhaya S., Dutta S. & Mahanta G., 2009, A handbook of Behali Reserved Forest. Nature’s Bonyopran, Assam, India, 66 pp.

Schuldt A. & Scherer-Lorenzen M., 2014, Non-native tree species (Pseudotsuga menziesii) strongly decreases predator biomass and abundance in mixed-species plantations of a tree diversity experiment. Forest Ecology and Management 327: 10–17.

Singh J.S., Rawat Y.S., & Chaturvedi O.P., 1984, Replacement of Oak forest with pine in the Himalaya affect the nitrogen cycle. Nature 311: 54–56.

Thakur A.S. & Khare P.K., 2006, Species diversity and dominance in tropical dry deciduous forest ecosystem. Journal of Environmental Research and Development 1(1): 26–31.

Tynsong H. & Tiwari B.K., 2011, Diversity and population characteristics of woody species in natural forests and arecanut agroforests of south Meghalaya, Northeast India. Tropical Ecology 52(3): 243–252.

Upadhaya K., Pandey H.N., Law P.S. & Tripathi R.S., 2003, Tree diversity in sacred groves of the Jaintia hills in Meghalaya, northeast India. Biodiversity and Conservation 12: 583–597.

Upadhaya S.A., 2016–2017, Atobi, a souvenir published on the occasion of the centenary celebration of Behali Reserved forest. Nature’s Bonyopran, Assam, India, 90 pp.




Partnerzy platformy czasopism