Geostatistical and geospatial assessment of soil pollution with heavy metals in Pavlograd city (Ukraine)

Mykola M. Kharytonov, Sergey A. Stankevich, Olga V. Тitarenko, Helena Doležalová Weisssmannová, Iryna I. Klimkina, Liliya A. Frolova



This paper presents the result of studies of the geostatistical and geospatial assessment heavy metal pollution in soils caused by various technogenic sources to assess the environmental impact of industrial agglomeration activitiy in the Pavlograd city. The main sources of technogenic pollution in the Pavlograd city and suburban areas are industrial enterprises, coal-fired plants, mine dumps and other. The vast number of analyzed soil samples with weakly acidic pH values from 6.3 to 6.8 is characterized as loam (63 %), the rest are sand (33 %) and clay soils (4 %). The correlation matrix of metals data indicates positive correlation with correlation coefficient r 2 > 0.5 among texture – Ni (0.705) and Pb – Zn (0.695) within the Pavlograd city area. In the case of Cu (2.73) and Cd (4.27), the geoaccumulation index indicated “moderately to strongly” and “strongly to extremely” polluted soils accordingly. Means of pollution index (PI) for heavy metals were between uncontaminated ( PI ≤ 1) and of moderate contaminated soils ( PI ≥ 1).The results of this study show that industrial enterprises’ activities lead to heavy metal contamination in the topsoil of the studied sites and close to the background values. Similar properties were confirmed by principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis. The PCA and cluster analysis results indicate that Cd, Ni, Pb, Cu, Zn and Mn in topsoil were affected by the technogenic activity. The spatial distribution characteristics of Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn in the geochemical maps are also similar. Highlighted are some of the halos in Pavlograd of high density of total soil contamination with heavy metals. The metals come from anthropogenic sources, mainly produced with four industrial enterprises in Pavlograd city. Mostly they are concentrated in the Southeast and West of the city and suburban areas of the Pavlograd district. Therefore, it is necessary arrangements to predict of the development of ecologically dangerous state of environmental pollution within the area of industrial enterprises of city.


Environmental state; technogenic pollution; soil; heavy metals

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