Natural disturbances of the structure of Norway spruce forests in Europe and their impact on the preservation of epixylic lichen diversity: A review

Magdalena Tanona, Paweł Czarnota



The review of current studies on the importance of two main natural disturbances in montane and boreal forests of Europe, dominated by Norway spruce, namely windstorms and the spruce bark beetle outbreaks, for the accumulation of decaying wood in forest ecosystems, shows the relationship between these processes and the creation of habitat diversity for epixylic lichens, especially in the context of the conservation of rare and endangered species. At the same time, this work reveals insufficiency of knowledge on this subject and points to the potential negative effects of removing this substrate in forests under area protection. It also includes recommendations for modern forestry, in which one of the significant goals would be to protect biodiversity.


bark beetle outbreaks; windstorms; lichen protection; decaying wood

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