Application of Shumann and Joosten classification in fen peatland degradation stage assessment – A case study from southern Poland

Bartłomiej Glina, Katarzyna Kołodziejczyk-Prażmo, Adam Bogacz, Klara Tomaszewska, Zbigniew Kaczmarek, Piotr Gajewskl



The aim of this paper was to assess the degradation stage of fen peatland located in the north-western part of the Opolskie voivodeship in accordance with “peatland degradation stages” classification. Understanding of the current state of peatland will be helpful in the future management and possible restoration. Field survey including vegetation and soil research were carried out in May 2013, soil material for laboratory analysis were collected by using “Instorf” peat sampler from four sampling points. Obtained results allowed to classify the study area (located within a larger peatland complex along the Prosna river valley) to minor stage of degrada- tion, with spontaneous changes in vegetation community and soil cover. Only few species of plants typical for fen peatlands were recorded. Moreover, soil cover research did not confirm mursh forming process, typical for strongly degraded peatland areas. Obtained results may indicate that possible future restoration will bring the expected effect. It is very likely, that fen peatland vegetation will regenerate spontaneously, provided that diaspores of the key peat-forming plant species are available in the soil.


organic soils; peat-forming plants; physical properties; secondary transformation

Full Text:



Braun-Blanquet J., 1951, Pflanzensoziologie, 2 Aufl., Springer-Verlag, Wien.

Bojko O. & Kabala C., 2014, Loss-on-ignition as an estimate of total organic carbon in mountain soils, Polish Journal of Soil Science 47(2): 71–79.

Bullock A. & Acreman M., 2003, The role of wetlands in the hydrological cycle, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 7: 358–389.

Chambers F.M., Beilman D.W. & Yu Z., 2011, Methods for determining peat humification and for quantifying peat bulk density, organic matter and carbon content for palaeostudies of climate and peatland carbon dynamics, transformation process (W index). Mires and Peat 7: 1–10.

Erwin K.L., 2009, Wetlands and global change: the role of wetland restoration in a changing world, Wetlands Ecology and Management 17: 71–84.

Farrell C.A., & Doyle G.J., 2003, Rehabilitation of industrial cutaway Atlantic blanket bog in County Mayo, North-West Ireland, Wetlands Ecology and Management 11: 21–35.

Ferrati R., Canziani G.A. & Moreno D.R., 2005, Estero del Ibera: hydrometeorological and hydrological characterization, Ecological Modelling 186: 3–15.

Forysiak J., Kloss M., Obremska M., Żurek S., 2014, Lateglacial and Holocene sediments of some valley peatlands in the Łódź region in relation to palaeoenvironmental changes, Folia Quaternaria 82: 5-30.

Gawlik J., 2000, Division of differently silted peat forma tions into classes according to their state of secondary transformations, Acta Agrophysica 26: 17–24.

Glina B., Bogacz A., Bojko O., Kordyjarek M., 2013, Diversity of soils in the peatland located on slope near Karłów (Stołowe Mountains National Park), Episteme 18(3): 287–296.

Glina B., 2016, Selected trace elements concentrations in peat used for cosmetic production – A case study from southern Poland, Civil and Environmental Engineering Reports 23(4): 51–60.

Glina B., Gajewski P., Kaczmarek Z., Owczarzak W. & Rybczyński P., 2016a, Current state of peatland soils as an effect of long-term drainage – preliminary results of peatland ecosystems investigations in the Grójecka Valley (central Poland), Soil Science Annual 67(1): 3–9.

Glina B., Bogacz A., Gulyas M., Zawieja B., Gajewski P. & Kaczmarek Z., 2016b, The effect of long-term forestry drainage on the current state of peatland soils: A case study from the Central Sudetes, SW Poland, Mires and Peat 18(21): 1–11.

Heller C. & Zeitz J., 2012, Stability of soil organic matter in two northeastern Germany fen soils: the influence of site and soil development, Journal of Soil and Sediments 12: 1231–1240.

IUSS Working Group WRB., 2015, World reference base for soil resources. International Soil Classification System for Naming Soil and Creating Legends for Soil Maps, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.

Jonczak J., 2015. Buffering properties of the soils developed from mill-pond deposits in the valley of the Jarosławianka Creek, Journal of Ecology and Protection of the Coastline 19: 37–48.

Kabala C., Musztyfaga E., Gałka B., Labuńska D. & Manczyńska P., 2016, Conversion of soil pH 1:2.5 KCl and 1:2.5 H O to 1:5 H O – conclusions for soil management environmental monitoring and international soil databases, Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 25(3): 647–653.

Kalisz B., Łachacz A. & Głażewski R., 2010, Transformation of some organic matter components in organic soils exposed to drainage, Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 34: 245-256.

Kalisz B., Łachacz A. & Głażewski R., 2015, Effects of peat drainage on labile organic carbon and water repellency in NE Poland, Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 39: 20-27.

Kołodziejczyk K., 2013, Plant macroremains analysis as the basis for assessing degradation of peatlands used in agriculture, PhD thesis, Wrocław Univeristy of Life Sciences.

Kondracki J., 2011, Geografia regionalna Polski [Regional geography of Poland], Wyd. Naukowe PWN, Warszawa.

Kotowski W. & Van Diggelen R., 2004, Light as an environmental filter in fen vegetation, Journal of Vegetation Sciences 15: 583–594.

Matuszkiewicz W., 2008, Przewodnik do oznaczania zbiorowisk roślinnych Polski [A guide for identification of plant communities in Poland], Wyd. Naukowe PWN, Warszawa.

McCarter C.P.R., & Price J.S., 2013, The hydrology of the Bois-de-Bel bog peatland restoration: 10 years post restoration, Ecological Engineering 55: 73–81.

Mendyk Ł., Markiewicz M., Świtoniak M. & Bednarek R., 2013, The use of orthophoto map for soils mapping of dwindling lakes catchment areas: a case study of Sumowskie Lake, NE Poland, Ecological Questions 17: 57–66.

Mirek Z., Piękoś-Mirkowa H., Zając A. & Zając M., 2002, Flowering plants and Pteridophytes of Poland. A Checklist. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków.

Nichols D.S. & Boelter D.H., 1984, Fiber size distribution, bulk density, and ash content of peats in Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan, Soil Science Society of American Journal 48: 1320–1328.

Parry L.E., Holden J. & Chapman P.J., 2014, Restoration of blanket peatlands, Journal of Environmental Management 133: 193–205.

PIG, Państwowy Instytut Geologiczny, 1994, Objaśnienie do szczegółowej Mapy Geologicznej Polski 1:50000 [Polish Geological Institute, 1994, Explanation to detailed Geological Map of Poland 1:50000], Warszawa.

Prevost M., Plamondon A. P. & Belleau P., 1999, Effects of drainage of a forested peatland on Water quality and quantity, Journal of Hydrology 214: 130–143.

PSC, Polish Soil Classification (Systematyka gleb Polski), 2011, Roczniki Gleboznawcze – Soil Science Annual 62(3): 1–193.

Schumann M. & Joosten H., 2008, Global Peatland Restoration Manual, Institute of Botany and Landscape Ecology, Greifswald University, Germany.

Sjors H. & Gunnarson U., 2002, Calcium and pH in north and central Swedish mires water, Journal of Ecology 90: 650–657.

Tuukkanen T., Martilla H. & Klove B., 2014, Effect of soil properties on peat erosion and suspended sediment delivery in drained peatlands, Water Resources Research 50(4): 3523–3535.

Wołejko L., 2000, Roślinność szuwarowa i turzycowiskowa z klasy Phragmitetea kompleksów źródliskowych Polski północno-zachodniej [Rush and sedge vegetation from the class Phragmitetea in seepage areas of NorthWestern Poland], Folia Universitatis Agriculturae Stetinensis, Agricultura 85: 221–245.

Partnerzy platformy czasopism