Geospatial Technology in Urban Forest suitability: Analysis for Ranchi, Jharkhand, India

Firoz Ahmad, Laxmi Goparaju

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12775/EQ.2016.011

Abstract


Changes in the landscape patterns have limited the range of greenery in the urban vicinity. Although urban forestry is  widely recognized and practiced in developed countries, it is less known in developing countries. It is an integral part that cannot  be overlooked because it enhances the quality of life and the environment for urban inhabitants and ensures the sustainable urban  development.  Geospatial technology has the potential to analyse and delineate suitable sites for urban forestry. For the present study we have selected  one of the Indian cities, Ranchi, where rapid urbanization has altered the climate of the city by increasing the summer heat,  air and noise pollution. In addition, the development of infrastructure has left very little space for the development of greenery. The  study utilized Landsat OLI satellite data (30 m resolution; 2015) and analysed it for suitable locations in open spaces after digital  processing. A radius of 30 km from the city centre, Firayalal chowk was analysed. Ancillary data, like an ASTER DEM (resolution  30 m) wetness map, slope, soil carbon, a drainage and urban buffer were incorporated in the GIS domain for Multi Criteria Analysis  (MCA). The land surface temperature was also computed using thermal bands of Landsat 8 OLI. A suitability map which identified  potential area (27% as highly suitable, 38% as moderately suitable and 35% as least suitable sites within the existing open spaces).  Highly potential sites are located along the Kanke reservoir, the Harmu River, near Khelgaon and the airport.  High temperatures (low vegetation and high settlement concentration) were noted within the 0-10 km buffer zone close to the city  centre. Whereas low temperatures (high vegetation and low settlement concentration) were noted within the 20-30 km buffer zone,  far from the city centre.  Therefore, integrating satellite remote sensing data in the GIS domain helps in analysing, identifying and locating suitable sites for  urban forest development and management. The high 


Keywords


Urban forestry ; Geospatial ; Ranchi ; Landsat ; Suitability ; Multi Criteria Analysis.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Action Plan, 2009–2010, Greening Chandigarh, Annual plan, Forest Department, Chandigarh Administration, Chandigarh.

Agarwal B.K., Kumar R. & Shahi D.K., 2013, Soil Resource Inventory of Jharkhand, Problem and Solution, Birsa Agriculture University, Ranchi.

Akbari, H., Kurn, D.M., Bretz, S.E. & Hanford, J.W., 1997, Peak power and cooling energy savings of shade tree, Energy and Buildings 25: 139–148.

Amiri R., Weng Q., Alimohammadi A. & Alavipanah SK., 2009, Spatial–temporal dynamics of land surface temperature in relation to fractional vegetation cover and land use/cover in the Tabriz urban area, Iran. Remote Sens. Environ. 113(12): 2606–2617.

Attwell K., 2000, Urban land resources and urban planting – case studies from Denmark, Landscape and Urban Planning 52: 145–163.

Baig M.H.A., Zhang L., Shuai T. & Tong Q., 2014, Derivation of a tasselled cap transformation based on Landsat 8 at-satellite reflectance, Remote Sens. Lett. 5: 423–431.

Behera G., Nageshwara R., Dutt P.P., Manikiam B., Balakrishna P., Krishnamurthy J., Jagadeesh K.M., Ganesha R.K., Diwakar P.G., Padmavathy A.S. & Parvathy R., 1985, Growth of Bangalore city since 1980 based on maps and satellite imagery, Technical Report, ISROEOS- TR-55-85, Indian Space Research Organization, Bangalore.

Bergen K., Colwell J. & Sapio F., 2000, Remote sensing and forestry: Collaborative implementation for a new century of forest information solutions, Journal of Forestry 98(6): 4−9.

Bonan G.B., 1997, Effects of land use on the climate of the United States, Climate Change 37: 449-486.

Brack C.L., 2002, Pollution mitigation and carbon sequestration by an urban forest, Environ. Poll. 116(S1): 195-200.

Carreiro M.M. & Zipperer W.C., 2008, Urban Forestry and the Eco-City: Today and Tomorrow, [in:] M.M.Carreiro et al. (eds.), Ecology, Planning, and Management of Urban Forests: International Perspectives, Springer,

Dordrecht, Pays-Bas: 435-456. CBS, 1998, Statistisch bestand Nederlandse gemeenten, Vol. 2, Central Bureau voor de Statistiek, Voorburg/ Heerlen.

Champion H.G. & Seth S.K., 1968, A Revised Survey of the Forest Types of India, Published by Govt. of India Press, New Delhi.

Chaparro L. & Terradas J., 2009, Ecological Services of Urban Forest in Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain, Centre de Recerca Ecological Aplicacions Forestals, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona.

Chaudhry P. & Tewari VP., 2010, Managing urban parks and gardens in developing countries: a case from an Indian city, Intern. Jour. of Leis. and Tour. Mark, 1(3): 248 – 256.

Chiesura A., 2004, The role of urban parks for the sustainable city, Land. and Urban Plann., 68(1): 129-138.

Coder K.D., 1996, Identified Benefits of Community Trees and Forests, University of Georgia Cooperative Extension Service – Forest Resources Publication FOR96-39, University of Georgia, Athens, GA.

Dwivedi P., Rathore C.S. & Dubey Y., 2009, Ecological benefits of urban forestry: The case of Kerwa Forest Area (KFA), Bhopal, India. App. Geog.: 29(2): 194- 200.

Dwyer J.F., McPherson E.G., Schroeder H.W. & Rowntree R.A., 1992, Assessing the benefits and costs of the urban forest, Journal of Arboriculture 18(5): 227-234.

Dwyer J.F. & Nowak D.J., 2000, A national assessment of the urban forest: An overview, [in:] Proceedings of the Society of American Foresters 1999, National Convention 11-15 September 1999, Portland OR, Society of American Foresters, Bethesda, MD: 157–162.

Erickson D., 2006, Metro Green: Connecting Open Space in North American Cities, Island Press, Washington, D.C.

Escobedo F., Varela S., Zhao M., Wagner J.E. & Zipperer W., 2010, Analyzing the efficacy of subtropical urban forests in offsetting carbon emissions from cities, Environ. Sci. and Pol. 13(5): 362–372.

Fang C.F. & Ling D.L., 2005, Guidance for noise reduction provided by tree belts, Landscape and Urban Planning 71(1): 29–34.

FAO, http://www.fao.org/forestry/urbanforestry/en/

FDG (Forest Department Gujarat), 2008, Tree cover assessment in Gandhinagar capital project area, using remote sensing technology, Report prepared by GIS Centre, Forest Department, Gujarat, India.

Forbes S.M. & Dakin R.H., 2003, Second National Sequestration Conf., Alexandria: Virginia.

FSI, 2009, State of forest report 2009, Forest Survey of India, Ministry of Environment & Forests, Dehradun, India: 74–77. [http://www.fsi.nic.in/sfr_2009/delhi.pdf Accessed on 10 December 2009].

Gandhi M., Nagaraj Thummala G. & Christy A., 2015, Urban Green cover assessment and site analysis in Chennai, Tamil Nadu – A remote sensing and GIS approach, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences 10(5): 2239-2243

Givoni B., 1991, Impact of planted areas n urban environmental quality: a review, Atmos. Environ. 25: 289-290.

Goparaju L., 2012, Urban Sustainability: lessons from the past. [www.thinktosustain.com. http://www thinktosustain.com/2012/07/urban-sustainability-lessons-from-the-past/#.V4OS2GYkrIU].

Grahn P. & Stigsdotter U.A., 2003, Landscape planning and stress, Urban Forest. & Urban Green. 2: 1-18.

Grimmond C.S.B. & Oke TR., 1991, An evapotranspiration interception model for urban areas, Water Resource. Res. 27: 1739-1755.

Helms J.A., (ed.), 1998, The Dictionary of Forestry, Society of American Foresters Bethesda, Md.

Ibrahim A.L. & Rosli A.Z., 2012, Identification of suitable location for urban forestry using remote sensing and GIS technique, Aiming smart space sensing, The 33rd Asian conference on remote sensing, Thailand.

Ismail M.H. & Jusoff K., 2004, Urban forestry planning using remote sensing and GIS technique, Journ. of Scien. and Techn.12: 21-32.

James M.M. & Mundia C.N., 2014, Dynamism of land use changes on surface temperature in Kenya: a case study of Nairobi City, Int. J. Sci. Res. 3(4): 38–41.

Jat M.K., Garg P.K. & Khare D., 2008, Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 10: 26-43.

Jo H.K., 2002, Impacts of urban greenspace on offsetting carbon emissions for middle Korea, Journ. of Environ. Manage. 64:2: 115–126.

Jim C.Y. & Wendy Y.C., 2009, Ecosystem services and valuation of urban forests in China, Journ. of Arbori. 24: 224–233.

Khera N., Mehta V. & Sabata B.C., 2009, Interrelationship of birds and habitat features in urban greenspaces in Delhi, India, Urban Forest. & Urban Green. 8(3): 187-196.

Konijnendijk C.C., 2001, Urban forestry in Europe, [in:] M. Palo, J., Uusivuori, G. Mery (eds), World Forests Vol. 3, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht: 413–424.

Konijnendijk C.C., 2003, A decade of urban forestry in Europe, Forest. Pol. and Econ. 5(2): 173–186.

Konijnendijk C.C., Ricard R.M., Kenney A. & Randrup T.B., 2006, Defining urban forestry – a comparative perspective of North America and Europe, Urban Forest. & Urban Green. 4(3-4): 93–103.

Kuchelmeister G., 1998, Urban Forestry: Present Situation and Prospects in the Asia and Pacific region, FAO Asia-Pacific Forestry Sector Outlook Study, FAO Working Paper No: APFSOS/WP/44, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.

Kumar A. & Pandey A.C., 2013, Spatio-temporal assessment of urban environmental conditions in Ranchi Township, India using remote sensing and geographical information system techniques, International Journal of Urban Sciences 17 (1): 117-141.

Kumari U., Singh S., Tomar S., Pandey V.P.C., Rani M. & Kumar P., 2014, Geospatial strategy for assessment of urban change dynamics using LISS III-sensor, Bulle ntin of Environment and Scientific Research 3(4): 10-17.

Lillesand T.M. & Kiefer R.W., 2004, Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation, 5th ed., John Wiley, New York.

Lim V., Stubbs J.W., Nahar N., Amarasena N., Chaudry Z.U., Weng S.C., Mayosi B., van der Spuy Z., Liang R., Lai K.N., Metz G., Fitzgerald G.W., Williams B., Douglas N., Donohoe J., Darnchaivijir S., Coker P. & Gilmore I., 2009, Politicians must heed health effects of climate change, Lancet 374(9694): 973.

McPherson E.G. & Simpson J.R., 1998, Air pollutant uptake by Sacramento’s urban forest, Journal of Arboriculture 24: 224-234.

Ikiugu M.M.M., Kinoshitaa I. & Tashiroa Y., 2012, Urban Green Space Analysis and Identification of its Potential Expansion Areas, Asia Pacific International

Conference on Environment-Behaviour Studies, Salamis Bay Conti Resort Hotel, Famagusta, North Cyprus, 7-9 December 2011, Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences 35: 449-458.

Moigneu T., 2001, Recreation in the Paris region national forests: a priceless service which should be costless? [in:] C.C. Konijnendijk, Flemish Forest Organisation (eds), Communicating and Financing Urban Woodlands in Europe. Proceedings of the Second and Third IUFRO European on Urban Forestry, Aarhus, Denmark, 4–6 May 1999 and Gyarmatpuszta/Budapest, Hungary, 9–12 May 2000, Ministerie van de Vlaamse Gemeenschap, Afdeling Bos & Groen etc., Brussels: 201–206.

Nagendra H. & Gopal D., 2010, Street trees in Bangalore: density, diversity, composition and distribution, Urban Forest. Urban Green. 9(2):129–137. [10.1016/j.ufug.2009.1012.1005].

Nowak D.J. & Crane D.E., 2000, The Urban Forest Effects (UFORE) Model: quantifying urban forest structure and functions, [in:]: M. Hansen, T. Burk (eds), Integrated Tools for Natural Resources Inventories in the 21Century, USDA Forest Service General Technical Report NC-212, MN, St. Paul: 714-720.

Nowak D.J. & Dwyer J.F., 2007, Understanding the benefits and costs of urbanforest ecosystems, [in:] J. Kuser (ed.), Urban and Community Forestry in the Northeast. Springer Science and Business Media, New York, NY: 25-46.

Nowak D.J., Hirabayashi S., Boidine A. & Greenfield E., 2014, Tree and forest effect on air quality and human health in the United States, Environ. Poll. 193: 119-129.

Nowak D.J., Stein S.M., Randler P.B., Greenfield E.J., Comas S.J., Carr M.A. & Alig R.J., 2010, Sustaining America’s urban trees and forests: a Forests on the Edge report, Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-62, Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station.

Oke T.R., 1989, The micrometeoreology of the urban forest, Phil. Trans. R. Soc., London, B.324: 335-349.

Patwardhan A., Nalavade S., Sahasrabuddhe K. & Utkarsh, G., 2001, Urban wildlife and protected areas in India, Parks 11(3): 28-34.

Potchter O., Goldman D., Kadish D. & Iluz, D., 2008, The oasis effect in an extremely hot and arid climate: the case of southern Israel, Journal of Arid Environments 72 (9): 1721-1733. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaridenv2008.03.004].

Senanayake I.P., Welivitiyal W.D.D.P. & Nadeeka P.M., 2013, Assessment of Green Space Requirement and Site Analysis in Colombo, Sri Lanka – A Remote Sensing and GIS Approach, International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research 4(12): 29-34.

Shashua-Bar L., Pearlmutter D. & Erell E., 2009, The cooling efficiency of urban landscape strategies in a hot dry climate, Landscape and Urban Planning 92: 179-186.

Sherrard D., 1996, Managing Riparian Open Space, Environment & Development, January/February, 6–7, Strategies in a hot dry climate, Land. and Urban Plann. 92: 3–4.

Strohbach M.W., Arnold E. & Haase D., 2012, The carbon footprint of urban green space – A life cycle approach, Landscape and Urban Planning 104(2): 220–229.

Taha H., Akbari H., Rosenfeld A. & Huang J., 1988, Residential cooling loads and the urban heat island: The effects of albedo. Build. Environ. 23: 271-283.

Ugle P., Rao S. & Ramachandra T.V., 2010, Carbon Sequestration Potential of Urban trees, Lake 2010: Wetlands, Biodiversity and Climate Change, Conference in India on 22-24 December 2010, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore: 1-12. [http://www.ces.iisc.ernet.in/energy/lake2010/Theme%201/prachi_u.pdf].

Weng Q., 2003, Fractal analysis of satellite-detected urban heat island effect, Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing 69(5): 555–566.

World Urbanization Prospects, 2014, Revision Published by the United Nations, ISBN 978-92-1-151517-6, Copyright © United Nations. WUP, 2014, http://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/Publications/Files/WUP2014-Highlights.pdf

Xiao Q.F., McPherson E.G., Simpson J.R. & Ustin S.L., 1998, Rainfall interception by Sacramento’s urban forest, Journal of Arboriculture 24: 235–244.

Yang J., McBride J., Zhou J. & Sun Z., 2005, The urban forest in Beijing and its role in air pollution reduction, Urban Forest. & Urban Green. 3: 65–78.

Zerah M.H., 2007, Conflict between green space preservation and housing needs: The case of the Sanjay Gandhi National Park in Mumbai, Cities 24(2): 122-132.




Partnerzy platformy czasopism