Municipal caravan parks in South Africa: geography, management and planning

Christian M. Rogerson, Jayne M. Rogerson

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/31296

Abstract


Caravan parks are a largely overlooked theme in tourism scholarship. In South Africa, as in several other countries, local governments assumed an historical role in the establishment of caravan parks.   Municipal caravan parks are assets which could be leveraged for tourism growth and local development. The planning and management of caravan parks in South Africa can be understood as an element of asset management by local governments. It is shown that across most of South Africa municipal ownership of caravan parks is of declining significance as compared to the dominance of privately owned parks. The coastal province of the Western Cape is the biggest focus for caravanning and for the location of all caravan parks, including for the largest cluster of municipal owned caravan parks in South Africa. Research interviews were conducted with local stakeholders concerning contemporary planning and management of caravan parks. The results reveal that most local municipalities currently are struggling to manage appropriately and optimally maximise for local development the operations of municipal caravan parks. Many municipalities are considering different options for privatisation through selling off or leasing parks to private sector investors.


Keywords


caravan parks; municipal assets; spatial distribution; South Africa; caravan park management and planning

Full Text:

PDF

References


Blichfeldt, B.S. (2009). Innovation and entrepreneurship in tourism: The case of a Danish caravan site. Pasos, 7 (3): 415-431.

Brooker, E. and Joppe, M. (2013). Trends in camping and outdoor hospitality – An international review. Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism, 3-4: 1-6.

Brooker, E. and Joppe, M. (2014). A critical review of camping research and direction for future studies. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 20 (4): 335-351.

Buys, F. and Mavasa, T. (2007). The management of government immovable assets. Acta Structilia, 14 (1): 81-92.

Caldicott, R. (2011). Supply-side Evolution of Caravanning in Australia: An Historical Analysis of Caravan Manufacturing and Caravan Parks. Lismore, NSW, Australia: School of Tourism and Hospitality, Southern Cross University.

Caldicott, R.W. and Scherrer, P. (2013a). The life cycle of caravan parks in Australia: The case of Northern New South Wales. Australian Geographer, 44 (1): 63-80.

Caldicott, R.W. and Scherrer, P. (2013b). Facing divergent supply and demand trajectories in Australian caravanning: Learnings from the evolution of caravan park site-mix options in Tweed Shire. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 19 (2): 117-131.

Collins, D. and Kearns, R. (2010). Pulling up the tent pegs?: The significance and changing status of coastal campgrounds in New Zealand. Tourism Geographies, 12 (1): 53-76.

Davidson, R. and Maitland, R. (1997). Tourism Destinations. London: Hodder & Stoughton.

Department of Public Works (2005). Government-wide Immovable Asset Management Policy. Pretoria: Department of Public Works.

Department of Tourism (2015). Report of the Portfolio Committee on Tourism on Provincial Oversight Visit to the Eastern Cape Province 20-24 July 2015. Internal Document.

Dlomo, T.O. and Tseane-Gumbi, L.A. (2017). Hitches affecting the utilization of immovable municipal assets in achieving tourism development in East London city, South Africa. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 6 (3): 1-11.

Doğantan, E. and Emir, O. (2019). Determination of trailer park criteria in rural areas. Journal of Tourism and Gastronomy Studies, 7 (4): 2383-2398.

Doğantan, E., Gűlenç, S. and Kozak, N. (2017). The evolution and transformation of camping and coastal campgrounds in Antalya, Turkey. Turizam, 65 (1): 75-85.

Donaldson, R. (2018). Small Town Tourism in South Africa. Cham, Switzerland: Springer.

Donaldson, R. and Marais, L. (Eds.) (2012). Small Town Geographies in Africa: Experiences From South Africa and Elsewhere. New York: Nova Science.

Duranton, G. and Venables, A. (2019). Place-based Policies: Principles and Developing Country Applications. Oxford: University of Oxford, Department of Economics Discussion Paper No. 893.

Giglio, J.M., Friar, J.H. and Crittenden, W. F. (2018). Integrating lifecycle asset management in the public sector. Business Horizons, 61: 511-519.

Gilbert, H. (2013). The loss of low cost caravan parks – causes, cases and social consequences. In K. Ruming, B. Randolph and N. Gurran (Eds.), Proceedings: State of Australian Cities Conference, 2013, Sydney: State of Australian Cities Research Network.

Gillham, S. (2018). Millions needed to restore resort. HeraldLIVE, 9 December.

Harmer, D. and Rogerson, J.M. (2016). Youth tourism festivals in South Africa: The case of Plett Rage. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 5 (4): 1-14.

Harmer, D. and Rogerson, J.M. (2017). Festival processes, innovation and locality response: Evidence from South Africa’s rage youth festival. Tourism Review International, 21 (2): 169-179.

Hayward, B. (2014). Tycoon’s secret paradise. The Herald (Port Elizabeth), 25 January.

Houghton, J., Dlamini, B. and Mthembu, N. (2013). Considering small towns research and local economic development in South Africa. Skills at Work: Theory and Practice Journal, 6: 13-25.

Huysamen, F. (2017). The Great Outdoors Guide 2017. Cape Town: Caravan Publications.

Jayakody, J.A.D.C. (2017). Identification of factors affecting the success of caravan tourism industry in Sri Lanka. MBA thesis (Entrepreneurship), University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka.

Kaganova, O. (2010). Government Management of Land and Property Assets: Justification for Engagement by the Global Development Community. Washington DC: Urban Institute Center on International Development and Governance.

Kaganova, O. and Kaw, J.K. (2020). An asset management approach to planning, funding and managing public spaces. In J.K. Kaw, H. Lee and S. Wahba (Eds.), The Hidden Wealth of Cities: Creating, Financing and Managing Public Spaces (pp. 55-93). Washington DC: The World Bank.

Kaganova, O. and Kopanyi, M. (2014). Managing local assets. In C. Farvacque-Vitkovic and M. Kopanyi (Eds.), Municipal Finances: Guidebook for Local Governments (pp. 275-324). Washington DC: The World Bank.

Kaganova, O. and McKellar, J. (Eds.) (2006). Managing Government Property Assets: International Experiences. Washington DC: Urban Institute.

Kaganova. O. and Nayyar-Stone, R. (2000). Municipal real property asset management: An overview of world experience, trends and financial implications. Journal of Real Estate Portfolio Management, 6 (4): 307-326.

Kaganova, O. and Telgarsky, J. (2018). Management of capital assets by local governments: An assessment and benchmarking survey. International Journal of Strategic Property Management, 22 (2): 143-156.

Kontsiwe, N. and Visser, G. (2019). Tourism as a vehicle for local economic development in small towns? When things go wrong: The case of Aliwal North, South Africa. GeoJournal of Tourism and Geosites, 27 (4): 1334-1346.

Lashley, C. (2015). Researching snails on holiday: An agenda for caravanning and caravanners? Research in Hospitality Management, 5 (2): 115-122.

Lawrence, F. and Rogerson, C.M. (2019). Local economic development agencies and peripheral small town development: Evidence from Somerset East, South Africa. Urbani izziv, 30 (Supplement): 144-157.

MapStudio (2018). Camp & Caravan. Maitland, South Africa: MapStudio.

McEwan, H. (2013). Deserting transformation: Heritage, tourism and hegemonic spatiality in Prince Albert. Diversities, 15 (2): 23-36.

Mikkelsen, M.V. and Blichfeldt, B.S. (2015). ‘We have not seen the kids for hours’: The case of family holidays and free-range children. Annals of Leisure Research, 18 (2): 252-271.

Mikkelsen, M.V. and Cohen, S.A. (2015). Freedom in mundane mobilities: Caravanning in Denmark. Tourism Geographies, 17 (5): 663-681.

Mossel Bay Municipality (2018). Notice: Proposed Lease and Management of the Point Caravan Park: Erf 3626, 3601 and 3794, Including The Putt-putt Course, Skateboard Facility and Resort Shop (Total area + - 3.5 ha), Mossel Bay for a Period of Fifteen Years. Mossel Bay: Municipality of Mossel Bay.

National Productivity Institute (1990). Productivity Study of the Holiday Resort and Caravan Park Industry in South Africa. Pretoria: National Productivity Institute.

Nel, E. and Rogerson, C.M. (2016). The contested trajectory of applied local economic development in South Africa. Local Economy, 31 (1-2): 109-123.

Nkanjeni, U. (2018). Visit PE: Nelson Mandela Bay pumps money into holiday resorts to boost tourism. News24, 26 January.

O’Dell, S. (2015). Post-war tourism in the Tendring District and beyond: The rise of the holiday caravan park, c 1938-1989. PhD Dissertation, University of Essex.

Patterson, I., Pegg, S. and Mahedevan, R. (2015). The benefits of short stay caravan travel based on the lived experiences of grey caravanners in Australia. Tourism Analysis, 20 (5): 539-549.

Price Waterhouse Coopers (2011). Making Room for Revenue: South African Hospitality Outlook 2011-2015. Johannesburg: Price Waterhouse Coopers.

Prideaux, B. and McClymont, H. (2006). The changing profile of caravanners in Australia. International Journal of Tourism Research, 8: 45-58.

Rogerson, C.M. (2016). Outside the cities: Tourism pathways in South Africa’s small towns and rural areas. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 5 (3): 1-16.

Rogerson, C.M. (2020). Using municipal assets for leveraging local economic development in South Africa. Bulletin of Geography: Socio-Economic Series, 48: 47-63.

Rogerson, C.M. and Rogerson, J.M. (2012). Business development and local economic development in South Africa: Addressing the disconnect. Acta Academica, 44 (2): 41-69.

Rogerson, C.M. and Rogerson, J.M. (2014). Agritourism and local economic development in South Africa. Bulletin of Geography: Socio-Economic Series, 26: 93-106.

Rogerson, C.M. and Rogerson, J.M. (2019a). Tourism, local economic development and inclusion: Evidence from Overstrand Local Municipality, South Africa. GeoJournal of Tourism and Geosites, 25 (2): 293-308.

Rogerson, C.M. and Rogerson, J.M. (2019b). Public procurement, state assets and inclusive tourism: South African debates. GeoJournal of Tourism and Geosites, 26 (3): 686-700.

Rogerson, C.M. and Rogerson, J.M. (2020a). Inclusive tourism and municipal assets: Evidence from Overstrand Local Municipality, South Africa. Development Southern Africa https://doi.org/10.1080/0376835X.2020.1796597

Rogerson, C.M. and Rogerson, J.M. (2020b). Camping tourism: A review of recent international scholarship. GeoJournal of Tourism and Geosites, 28 (1): 349-359.

Rogerson, C.M. and Rogerson, J.M. (2020c). Coastal tourism in South Africa: A geographical perspective. In J.M. Rogerson and G. Visser (Eds.), New Directions in South African Tourism Geographies (pp. 227-247). Cham, Switzerland: Springer International.

Rogerson, J.M. (2013). Reconfiguring South Africa’s hotel industry 1990-2010; Structure, segmentation and spatial transformation. Applied Geography, 36: 59-68.

Rogerson, J.M. (2018). The geography of tourist bednights in South Africa. GeoJournal of Tourism and Geosites, 23 (3): 835-847.

Rogerson, J.M. (2019). The evolution of accommodation services in a coastal resort town: Hermanus, South Africa. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 8 (5): 1-16.

Rogerson, J.M. and Harmer, D. (2015). A ‘rite of passage’ youth festival in South Africa: The origins, attendees and organization of matric vac. Nordic Journal of African Studies, 24 (3-4): 221-240.

Rogerson, J.M. and Visser, G. (2020). Recent trends in South African tourism geographies. In J.M. Rogerson and G. Visser (Eds.), New Directions in South African Tourism Geographies (pp. 1-14). Cham, Switzerland: Springer International.

Seaton Thomson & Associates (2012). Tourism Development Plan for the Saldanha Bay Municipality Phase 3. Knysna: Seaton Thomson & Associates

Siyanda Business Solutions (2019). Status Quo Assessment – Cape Agulhas Municipal Reports. Reported prepared for the Cape Agulhas Local Municipality.

South African Tourism (2016). Tourism Annual Report, 2015. Johannesburg: South African Tourism.

South African Tourism (2017). Tourism Annual Report, 2016. Johannesburg: South African Tourism.

South African Tourism (2018). Tourism Annual Report, 2017. Johannesburg: South African Tourism.

Statistics South Africa (2017). Domestic Tourism Survey 2015. Pretoria: Statistics South Africa, Statistical Release P0352.1

Statistics South Africa (2019). Tourist Accommodation. Pretoria: Statistics South Africa, Statistical Release P. 6410.

Van der Merwe, C.D. (2014). Battlefield tourism: The status of heritage tourism in Dundee, South Africa. Bulletin of Geography: Socio-economic Series, 26: 121-139.

Van Heerden, C.H. (2008). Leisure motorhoming: The case of the motorhome club of South Africa. South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation, 30 (1): 125-136.

Van Heerden, C.H. (2010a). Self drive tourism in South Africa with specific emphasis on caravanning. In B. Prideaux and D. Carson (Eds.), Drive Tourism: Trends and Emerging Markets (pp. 85-97). London: Routledge.

Van Heerden, C. H. (2010b). An exploratory analysis of leisure caravanning in the Kruger National Park in South Africa. Innovative Marketing, 6 (1): 66-72

Venter, M. (2020). Exploring Local Economic Development in South Africa. Cape Town: Juta.

Visser, G. (2016). South African tourism geographies: progress and prospects. South African Geographical Journal, 98 (3): 428-438.

Wojewnik-Filipkowska, A. (2018). Municipal investment management – a comparative analysis of decision-making in Gdańsk and Edinburgh. Świat Nieruchomści, 106: 81-90.








Print ISSN: 1732-4254
Online ISSN: 2083-8298

Partnerzy platformy czasopism