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Socio-economic Series. bgss@umk.pl (Daniela Szymańska) greg@umk.pl (Grzegorz Kopcewicz) Wed, 29 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Evaluation of green space systems in small towns of Kyiv region https://apcz.umk.pl/BGSS/article/view/33870 The current state of landscaping of small towns in Kyiv region, which includes 80% of all cities we analyzed. The difference between the classification of green plantings, which used in Ukraine and the world-wide approach of green infrastructure, is shown. That makes it incorrect to compare the indicators of landscaping of towns in Ukraine with other countries. Based on the data of master plans of towns, the generally accepted indicators of landscaping of urban areas were calculated: provision of greenery per capita and the level of landscaping. These indicators of landscaping for small towns according to different approaches were analyzed. It's is found out that according to the traditional calculation the provision of green plantations exceeds 300 m<sup>2</sup> per capita only for 5 % of small towns of the region, and according to the approach of green infrastructure - for 70 %. Provision of green areas for public use meets the established state standards (8-11 m<sup>2</sup> per capita) only for 35 % of small towns in the region. Small towns are grouped into four clusters according to the similarity of landscaping indicators, where only the difference in the availability of green plantings of public use was unreliable among the clusters. Vasyl Yu. Yukhnovskyi, Olha V. Zibtseva, Iurii M. Debryniuk Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://apcz.umk.pl/BGSS/article/view/33870 Wed, 29 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Shrinking agricultural land and changing livelihoods after land acquisition in Vietnam https://apcz.umk.pl/BGSS/article/view/32546 <p>The phenomenon of agricultural land shrinkage is widespread in the world. This phenomenon has many causes, of which industrialisation is one. The industrialisation process is supported in most countries by the use of land acquisition as a tool to convert land use from agricultural to non-agricultural. This research surveyed 100 land-lost households to examine the impact of farmland shrinkage on their livelihoods in Vietnam. The study focuses on three factors: employment and income, how compensation money is used, and quality of life after land loss. The results show that revenue increased by USD 1,500 per household compared to before. The rate of employment depends on age and gender. There is a drop in employment among women over 35 years old and men over 40. The use of compensation money focuses on non-farm goals, with the bright spot being an investment in education for future generations. The environment and society tend to be worse according to the subjective assessment of households, but their ultimate choice is still to enjoy life after land acquisition.</p> Nguyen Tran Tuan Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://apcz.umk.pl/BGSS/article/view/32546 Wed, 29 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 The influence of transport offer on passenger traffic in the railway transport system in a post-socialist country: case study of Poland https://apcz.umk.pl/BGSS/article/view/32548 <p>The study examines factors influencing the number of rail passengers<br />in Poland. The subjects of observation were 62 cities with poviat rights. The main<br />factors influencing demand are the number of connections and the speed of trains.<br />Therefore, we developed an original indicator – weighted number of connections,<br />which takes into account the number of rail connections and the speed of trains.<br />The article can be divided into two main parts: an assessment of the diversification<br />of transport offer and transport demand in spatial terms, and an evaluation of<br />the relationship between the variables. Poland has a large spatial diversity in<br />terms of public rail transport offer and passenger traffic. There are three levels of<br />city hierarchy according to the passenger number indicator: [1] Warsaw, [2] the<br />largest agglomerations [3] other regional cities. Transport offer was found to have<br />a statistically significant impact on transport demand.</p> Wojciech Jurkowski, Mateusz Smolarski Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://apcz.umk.pl/BGSS/article/view/32548 Wed, 29 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Recycling of municipal waste in Slovak cities https://apcz.umk.pl/BGSS/article/view/31842 <p>Among the most urgent topics within waste management policy is<br />the gradual transition of the economy from a linear model towards a circular<br />economy with a more sustainable way of using resources. The European Union<br />has responded to these changes by passing new legislation and ambitious targets<br />so that all member states can quickly work towards achieving a greener and more<br />sustainable Europe. However, the starting position for achieving the desired goals<br />differs significantly from one country to another. In this paper, we therefore<br />looked at the position of Slovakia in relation to selected waste management<br />indicators, and at the measures taken so far. Moreover, since waste management<br />falls under one of the many public benefit services provided under the remit of<br />local governments, we also monitored the specific contribution of Slovak cities to<br />the newly established trend of waste management in the country.</p> Lucia Skamlova, Michal Klobučník Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://apcz.umk.pl/BGSS/article/view/31842 Wed, 29 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Mapping paradigm shifts in the geography of innovation https://apcz.umk.pl/BGSS/article/view/32012 <p>The study quantifies important theoretical tendencies in the geography<br />of innovation in a historical view based on a novel big-data approach. It shows that<br />the field was “born” only in the nineteen eighties after long periods (i.e. the first<br />half of the 20th century) of analysing economic growth and regional development<br />without endogenising the production process of innovation. The paper presents<br />important shifts in the basic assumptions of models with the increasing use of the<br />terms “economic instability” or “asymmetric information” instead of “economic<br />equilibrium” and “perfect information”. These mean a deviation from traditional<br />neoclassical regional economics, which is reflected in the fact that “geography<br />of innovation” gained the same level of popularity in the 2000s as “industrial<br />geography”. The paper shows that although the decline of the Marshallian<br />term “industrial district” stopped in parallel with the work of Becattini, a new<br />innovation systems theory took over the relative frequency of mention of the<br />industrial district by the turn of the new millennium.</p> Dániel Oláh, Levente Balázs Alpek Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://apcz.umk.pl/BGSS/article/view/32012 Wed, 29 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Websites and social networks of communes in Slovakia: development and current state https://apcz.umk.pl/BGSS/article/view/33942 <p>One of the main features of today's information society is the availability<br />of data of various kinds provided by various companies and organisations. In<br />the following paper, we focus on evaluating the dynamics of development and the<br />current state of existence of websites of communes in Slovakia, which represent a<br />database of their activities and serve as the main communication channel between<br />citizens and self-government representatives. Another important channel is social<br />networks, which are still enjoying huge popularity among Internet users. On the<br />basis of the results of an online questionnaire that involved almost 60% of the addressed<br />self-governments, we will point out the adaptation of self-governments to<br />the use of social networks. One of the important tasks of such research is the distribution<br />of the obtained results to end users. This is achieved through an example<br />of a description of basic technical and functional specifications by using the<br />website created by the authors. This website has the ambition of becoming a sort<br />of central access point for all those interested in information about communes in<br />Slovakia. By means of standard tabular, but also interactive graphic and map outputs,<br />it gives an idea of selected indicators of self-governments in a user-friendly<br />form, thus helping to increase client awareness of this specific issue.</p> Vladimír Bačík, Michal Klobučník Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://apcz.umk.pl/BGSS/article/view/33942 Wed, 29 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 CSR&COVID19 – How do they work together? Perceptions of Corporate Social Responsibility transformation during a pandemic crisis. Towards smart development https://apcz.umk.pl/BGSS/article/view/34888 <p>Nowadays, enterprises that are looking to achieve market success and<br />maximise profits must not only offer good products or provide superior quality<br />services, but also pay close attention to the environment in which they operate. One<br />of the manifestations of concern for the broadly understood environment (society,<br />environment) is Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). For a good number of<br />years, we have been observing changes in CSR trends, but the situation today<br />demands that organisations update the existing lines of action and meet a whole<br />new level of challenges. This article aims to present the results of case studies of<br />company activities in CSR, as well as a social perception of CSR activities. It also<br />seeks to draw attention to the transformation of ideas during the socio-economic<br />crisis caused by the coronavirus pandemic. In order to reach the objective of the<br />study, we used the Computer Assisted (Aided) Web Interviews (CAWI) method.<br />This choice was dictated by the pandemic situation in the country. The research<br />shows that there is a noticeable transformation of the focus of socially responsible<br />activities from a global to a local approach centred around smart development.<br />The study also concludes that the society expects that activities under this<br />approach will be continued in the future. The outcomes also indicate that the<br />pandemic situation has necessitated the introduction of entirely new solutions<br />(among others, remote working) that were not previously perceived as feasible<br />but now have a chance to develop further.</p> Ewelina Lopata, Krzysztof Rogatka Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://apcz.umk.pl/BGSS/article/view/34888 Wed, 29 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Impact of the implementation of EU, national and local policies and legislation on the transition towards eco-cities in Poland https://apcz.umk.pl/BGSS/article/view/34882 <p>Transforming cities towards eco-cities constitutes a significant effort in<br />mitigating and adapting to climate change. The implementation of legal acts and<br />diverse environmentally oriented sectoral policies plays an important role in that<br />process. The objective of this paper is to determine the antecedences and effects<br />of the transformation of cities in accordance with the eco-city concept in Poland<br />in the context of implemented policies, legislation and initiatives. The study<br />reviews the normative acts and programme-strategic documents that provide the<br />framework for the shift towards eco-city at the international and EU level, as well<br />as identifying changes in legislation and policy initiatives resulting from their<br />implementation at national and local level. A set of 24 original indices referring to<br />six aspects of the eco-city (waste management, water and wastewater management,<br />transport and urban mobility, application of RES in energy engineering, air quality,<br />and urban green areas) were applied in multi-criterion analyses in selected case<br />studies. This permitted us to identify the key factors that power the transition<br />towards eco-city. The legal and policy measures are implemented in a top-down<br />approach. Actions are usually initiated at national level and implemented by local<br />authorities, who operate according to their assigned tasks and using dedicated<br />tools (e.g. LEPs, SUMPs). Significant effect of the implementation of eco-city<br />solutions were identified in waste management, sustainable transport, urban<br />mobility, and air quality improvement. Recommendations for future measures<br />include implementing plans and demonstrative projects of eco-cities or ecodistricts,<br />conducting complex pro-ecological measures, and increasing the role of<br />bottom-up actions.</p> Dagmara Kociuba, Klaudia Wajs Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://apcz.umk.pl/BGSS/article/view/34882 Wed, 29 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 An analysis of key factors affecting New Town Planning with a human-centred approach https://apcz.umk.pl/BGSS/article/view/32892 <p>Since new towns are to meet the needs of the metropolitan population,<br />it is required to acquaint the populations with the new scientific-technical<br />methods and take one more step towards civilisation. Given that the New Town<br />seeks to provide the latest facilities for citizens, a human-oriented approach can<br />be proposed. New Urbanism with a humanistic approach requires coherent and<br />dynamic planning. New structures and the various needs of the New Towns<br />require comprehensive and integrated planning to utilise recent facilities to lead<br />New Towns toward a human-centred attitude.<br />Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to analyse the key factors affecting the<br />planning of New Towns with a humanistic approach. The method in this research<br />is a descriptive-analytical survey. In the first step of the research, a list of primary<br />factors involved in planning new cities was identified as research variables, using<br />documentary sources and previous research. Then the research variables were<br />analysed based on the Delphi method. Accordingly, 34 variables were provided in<br />five domains for 50 experts in urban planning issues in the form of questionnaires<br />to be analysed in matrices.<br />The findings of the study are demonstrated in five aspects: cultural-social, physicalspatial,<br />economic, environmental, and governance topics, with 34 components.<br />The results show that citizenship rights, social capital, transparency, accountability,<br />law, participation, consensus, quality of performance and managerial effectiveness,<br />efficiency, economic welfare, sustainable active economy, meeting economic<br />needs, quality of texture, and spirituality have the highest impact and the lowest<br />affectedness on the realisation of human-centred New Urbanism. The results<br />can be useful and effective by establishing integrity and fundamental theoretical<br />principles in planning, implementation and strategic control of New Towns.</p> Maliheh Izadi, Hamidreza Varesi, Mehdi Jafari Vardanjani Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://apcz.umk.pl/BGSS/article/view/32892 Wed, 29 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Zipf’s Law for cities: estimation of regression function parameters based on the weight of American urban areas and Polish towns https://apcz.umk.pl/BGSS/article/view/33428 <p>The paper aims at presentation of a methodology where the classical<br />linear regression model is modified to guarantee more realistic estimations and<br />lower parameter oscillations for a specific urban system. That can be achieved by<br />means of the weighted regression model which is based on weights ascribed to<br />individual cities. The major shortcoming of the methods used so far – especially<br />the classical simple linear regression – is the treatment of individual cities as<br />points carrying the same weight, in consequence of which the linear regression<br />poorly matches the empirical distribution of cities. The aim is reached in a severalstage<br />process: demonstration of the drawbacks of the linear parameter estimation<br />methods traditionally used for the purposes of urban system analyses; introduction<br />of the weighted regression which to a large extent diminishes specific drawbacks;<br />and empirical verification of the method with the use of the input data for the<br />USA and Poland</p> Dariusz Sokołowski, Iwona Jażdżewska Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://apcz.umk.pl/BGSS/article/view/33428 Wed, 29 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200