Tourist perceptions and attitudes regarding the impacts of climate change on Victoria Falls

Kaitano Dube, Godwell Nhamo

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/19152

Abstract


Tourist perceptions are critical in shaping tourism development at a destination. Regardless of the centrality and vulnerability of the tourism industry, tourism geographers have been shying away from perception studies, and more so in Africa. Some of the destinations most vulnerable to climate change and related weather activities are water-based natural resorts. Recent droughts have ignited an intense debate that has brought the future viability of tourism in Victoria Falls into question. Using a mixed-method approach, the study sought to document tourist perceptions and attitudes regarding the impact and future of the Victoria Falls World Heritage Site. It emerged that Victoria Falls is categorised as last-chance tourism. Going forward there is need for continuous resort monitoring, tourism product diversification, and transparency and proper communication, particularly during years of extreme droughts, in order to avoid tourism disruption. Climate change action is a must for all tourism stakeholders to save the resort.


Keywords


Climate change, tourism, perceptions, waterfalls drying up, Victoria Falls

Full Text:

PDF

References


Amelung, B., Nicholls, S., & Viner, D. (2007). Implications of global climate change for tourism flows and seasonality. Journal of Travel Research, 45(3), 285-296. Retrieved from 10.1177/0047287506295937

Beck, L., & Bernauer, T. (2011). How will combined changes in water demand and climate affect water availability in the Zambezi river basin? Global Environmental Change, 21(3), 1061-1072. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2011.04.001

Brulle, R., Carmichael, J., & Jenkins, J. (2012). Shifting public opinion on climate change: an empirical assessment of factors influencing concern over climate change in the U.S., 2002–2010. Climatic Change, 114(2), 169–188. doi:10.1007/s10584-012-0403-y

Bryman, A. (2017). Quantitative and qualitative research: further reflections on their integration. In J. Brannen (Ed.), Mixing Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Research (pp. 57-78). London: Routledge.

Buzzi, M., Buzzi, M., Franchi, D., Gazzè, D., Iervasi, G., Marchetti, A., . . . Tesconi, M. (2017). Facebook: a new tool for collecting health data? Multimedia Tools and Applications, 76(8), 10677–10700. doi:10.1080/09669581003653542

Cai, M. (2016). Greenhouse gas emissions from tourist activities in South Tyrol: A multiregional input–output approach. Tourism Economics, 22(6), 1301-1314. doi:10.1177/1354816616669008

Damm, A., Köberl, J., Prettenthaler, F., Rogler, N., & Töglhofer, C. (2017). Impacts of +2 °C global warming on electricity demand in Europe. Climate Services, 7, 12-30. doi:10.1016/j.cliser.2016.07.001

Dube, K., & Nhamo, G. (2018a). Climate variability, change and potential impacts on tourism: Evidence from the Zambian side of the Victoria Falls. Environmental Science & Policy, 84, 113–123. doi:10.1016/j.envsci.2018.03.009

Dube, K., & Nhamo, G. (2018b). Climate change, variability and potential impacts on tourism: Evidence from the Zimbabwean side of the Victoria Falls. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 1-17. doi:10.1007/s10668-018-0118-y

Dube, K., Mearns, K., Mini, S., & Chapungu, L. (2018). Tourists' knowledge and perceptions on the impact of climate on tourism in Okavango Delta, Botswana. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 7(4), 1-18.

Fitchett, M. J., Hoogendoorn, G., & Robinson, D. (2016). Data challenges and solutions in the calculation of Tourism Climate Index (TCI) scores in South Africa. Tourism, 64(4), 359-370.

Font, X., & Hindley, A. (2017). Understanding tourists’ reactance to the threat of a loss of freedom to travel due to climate change: a new alternative approach to encouraging nuanced behavioural change. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 25(1), 26-42. doi:10.1080/09669582.2016.1165235

Graham, L., Andersson, L., Horan, M., Kunz, R., Lumsden, T., Schulze, R., . . . Yang, W. (2011). Using multiple climate projections for assessing hydrological response to climate change in the Thukela River Basin, South Africa. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, 36(14-15), 727-735. doi:10.1016/j.pce.2011.07.084

Gray, W. (2007). Zambia and Victoria Falls. Cape Town: New Holland Publishers.

Hall, M., & Higham, J. (2005). Tourism, Recreation and Climate Change. Toronto: Channel View Publications.

Helm, S., Pollitt, A., Barnett, M., Curran, M., & Craig, Z. (2018). Differentiating environmental concern in the context of psychological adaption to climate change. Global Environmental Change, 48, 158-167. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2017.11.012

Higham, J., Reis, A., & Cohen, S. (2016). Australian climate concern and the ‘attitude–behaviour gap. Current Issues in Tourism, 19(4), 338-354. doi:10.1080/13683500.2014.1002456

Hindley, A., & Font, X. (2018). Values and motivations in tourist perceptions of last-chance tourism. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 18(1), 3-14. doi:10.1177/1467358415619674

Hoogendoorn, G., & Rogerson, C. (2016). New perspectives on Southern African tourism research. Tourism, 64(4), 355 - 357.

Illum, S., Ivanov, S., & Liang, Y. (2010). Using virtual communities in tourism research. Tourism Management, 31(1), 335-340. doi:10.1016/j.tourman.2009.03.012

IPCC. (2015). Climate Change 2014 Synthesis Report. Geneva: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

Kaján, E., & Saarinen, J. (2013). Tourism, climate change and adaptation: a review. Current Issues in Tourism, 16(2), 167-195. doi:10.1080/13683500.2013.774323

Kupika, O., & Nhamo, G. (2016). Mainstreaming biodiversity and wildlife management into climate change policy frameworks in selected east and southern African countries. Jàmbá: Journal of Disaster Risk Studies, 8(3), 1-9.

Kusangaya, S., Warburton, M., Van Garderen, E., & Jewitt, G. (2014). Impacts of climate change on water resources in southern Africa: A review. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 67, 47-54. doi:10.1016/j.pce.2013.09.014

Lemelin, H., Dawson, J., Stewart, E. J., Maher, P., & Lueck, M. (2010). Last-chance tourism: the boom, doom, and gloom of visiting vanishing destinations. Current Issues in Tourism, 13(5), 477-493. doi:10.1080/13683500903406367

Lemieux, C. J., Groulx, M., Halpenny, E., Stager, H., Dawson, J., Stewart, E. J., & Hvenegaard, G. T. (2018). “The End of the Ice Age?”: Disappearing World Heritage and the Climate Change Communication Imperative. Environmental Communication, 12(5), 653-6.

Lu, W., & Stepchenkova, S. (2015). User-generated content as a research mode in tourism and hospitality applications: Topics, methods, and software. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 24(2), 119-154. doi:10.1080/19368623.2014.907758

Mackay, E., & Spencer, A. (2017). The future of Caribbean tourism: competition and climate change implications. Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, 9(1), 44-59. doi:10.1108/WHATT-11-2016-0069

Mapira, J. (2018). ZIMBABWE’S PARKS AND WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY: CHALLENGES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT. European Journal of Social Sciences Studies, 2(9), 247-262. doi:10.5281/zenondo.1148817

Nhamo, G., & Mjimba, V. (2017). Sustainability, climate change and the green economy. Pretoria: Africa Institute of South Africa.

Nheta, D., Madzunye, T., & Tshipala, N. (2017). Profile of Ecotourists within the Capricorn District Municipality, South Africa. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 6(4), 1-20.

Nyamwanza, A. (2018). Local institutional adaptation for sustainable water management under increasing climatic variability and change: A case in the mid-Zambezi Valley, Zimbabwe. International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management. doi:10.1108/IJCCSM-03-2017-0078

Pandy, W. R., & Rogerson, C. M. (2018). Tourism and climate change: Stakeholder perceptions of at risk tourism segments in South Africa. EuroEconomica, 37(2).

Patterson, C. (2007). The Business of Ecotourism (3rd ed.). Victoria, Canada: Trafford Publishing.

Pew Research Center. (2015). Global Concern About Climate Change, Broad Support for Limiting Emissions. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewglobal.org/2015/11/05/1-concern-about-climate-change-and-its-consequences/#many-see-effects-of-climate-change-now

Piggott-McKellar, A., & McNamara, K. (2017). Last chance tourism and the Great Barrier Reef. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 25(3), 397-415. doi:10.1080/09669582.2016.1213849

Ramsar. (2013). Ramsar sites Information Service Victoria Falls National Park. Retrieved January 20, 2018, from https://rsis.ramsar.org/ris/2108?language=en

Ross, L., York, R., Cialdini, R., Diamond-Smith, N., Diamond, J., Ehrlich, P., & Arrow, K. (2016). The Climate Change Challenge and Barriers to the Exercise of Foresight Intelligence. BioScience, 66(5), 363-370. doi:10.1093/biosci/biw025

Scott, D., & Becken, S. (2010). Adapting to climate change and climate policy: progress, problems and potentials. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 18(3), 283-295. doi:10.1080/09669581003668540

Scott, D., Gössling, S., & Hall, C. (2012). Tourism and climate change: Impacts, adaptation and mitigation (1st ed.). London, New York: Routledge, London.

Scott, D., Hall, C., & Gössling, S. (2016). A report on the Paris Climate Change Agreement and its implications for tourism: why we will always have Paris. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 24(1), 8-30. doi:10.1080/09669582.2016.1187623

Turton, S., Dickson, T., Hadwen, W., Jorgensen, B., Pham, T., Simmons, D., . . . Wilson, R. (2010). Developing an approach for tourism climate change assessment: evidence from four contrasting Australian case studies. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 18(3), 429-447. doi:10.1080/09669581003639814

UNESCO. (2016). Mosi oa Tunya/Victoria Falls World Heritage Property The State of Conservation Report Zambia and Zimbabwe. UNESCO. Retrieved from http://whc.unesco.org/en/soc/3562

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization-UNESCO. (1989). World Heritage List. Retrieved January 20, 2018, from http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/509/

Walters, G., Mair, J., & Ritchie, B. (2014). Understanding the tourist’s response to natural disasters: The case of the 2011 Queensland floods. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 21(1), 101-113. doi:10.1177/1356766714528933

Whitmarsh, L. (2008). What’s in a name? Commonalities and differences in public understanding of ‘climate change’ and ‘global warming. Public Understanding of Science, 18(4), 401-420. doi:10.1177/0963662506073088

Wilkins, E., de Urioste-Stone, S., Weiskittel, A., & Gabe, T. (2018). Effects of weather conditions on tourism spending: implications for future trends under climate change. Journal of Travel Research, 57(8), 1042-1053.

Wolf , J., Brown, K., & Conway, D. (2009). Ecological citizenship and climate change: perceptions and practice. Environmental Politics, 18(4), 503-521. doi:10.1080/09644010903007377

Xiang, Z., Du, Q., Ma, Y., & Fan, W. (2017). A comparative analysis of major online review platforms: Implications for social media analytics in hospitality and tourism. Tourism Management, 58, 51-65. doi:10.1016/j.tourman.2016.10.001

Zimba, H., Kawawa, B., Chabala, A., Phiri, W., Selsam, P., Meinhardt, M., & Nyambe, I. (2018). Assessment of trends in inundation extent in the Barotse Floodplain, upper Zambezi River Basin: A remote sensing-based approach. Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies, 15, 149-170. doi:10.1016/j.ejrh.2018.01.002








Print ISSN: 1732-4254
Online ISSN: 2083-8298

Partnerzy platformy czasopism