Small-scale biogas plants in Vietnam: How are affected by policy issues?
Keywordsbiogas, Vietnam, policy, policy cycle analytical approach, renewable energy, rural development
Both developed and developing countries are working towards creating an emission free planet. Vietnam, as one of the highest contributors to greenhouse gas emissions, has implemented several policies to curtail this phenomenon. Most of these policies are geared towards the development of renewable energy technologies such as biogas. The country’s policy on environmental protection, clean energy, climate change, and rural development has been based on small-scale biogas programs and projects. However, how are these small-scale biogas plants affected by arising policy issues? To answer this question, an intensive literature review was conducted and accompanied by a consultation with biogas experts with a focus on Vietnam. The data collected were analysed using the policy cycle analytical approach. The results showed that several policy instruments, such as the price of other conventional fuels and feed-in-tariffs, affect small-scale biogas plants. Furthermore, thousands of small-scale biogas plants have been installed due to good policies such as the Vietnam National Biogas Program. Finally, funding remains the biggest barrier to biogas policy amendments and implementation; the several biogas programs implemented over the decade could have yielded more positive impact if financial barriers like co-financing by the beneficiaries were set up more appropriately. In addition, new policies in the future will favour mid- to large-scale biogas plants rather than small-scale biogas plants. This policy implication threatens the sustainability of small-scale biogas plants; therefore, policy makers must be adroit in addressing policy issues that affect biogas production in Vietnam.
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