Sweet SIXTEEN: Automation via Embedding into Classical Higher-Order Logic

Alexander Steen, Christoph Benzmüller

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12775/LLP.2016.021


An embedding of many-valued logics based on SIXTEEN in classical higher-order logic is presented. SIXTEEN generalizes the four-valued set of truth degrees of Dunn/Belnap’s system to a lattice of sixteen truth degrees with multiple distinct ordering relations between them. The theoretical motivation is to demonstrate that many-valued logics, like other non-classical logics, can be elegantly modeled (and even combined) as fragments of classical higher-order logic. Equally relevant are the pragmatic aspects of the presented approach: interactive and automated reasoning in many-valued logics, which have broad applications in computer science, artificial intelligence, linguistics, philosophy and mathematics, become readily enabled with state of the art reasoning tools for classical higher-order logic.


many-valued logic; non-classical logic; higher-order logic; automated theorem proving; semantic embedding; automation; meta-logical reasoning

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