Landscape transformations and risks for ecosystems of protected landscape areas in the Metropolitan Area of Gdańsk-Gdynia-Sopot

Jarosław Tomasz Czochański

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12775/EQ.2018.008

Abstract


The article is devoted to the issues of ecological and landscape changes taking place in large spatial protected areas (landscape parks and protected landscape areas), located inside and in close proximity to the so-called functional zone of the Gdańsk-Gdynia-Sopot Metropolitan Area. The area is a metropolis with a population of 1.56 million inhabitants. In its central part, in the immediate vicinity (up to 25 km) from the borders of Tri-City, there are 4 landscape parks and 17 areas of protected landscape. High natural and landscape values determine the great interest in these areas, not only as a recreational space, but also as an area of realization of housing and service as well as production functions. The author draws attention to the lack of results of ecological and landscape research on a regional scale (especially in the immediate vicinity of a large, developing metropolis), evaluating the conservation status of protected areas, lack of reliable recognition of threats and the degree of changes in the environment of these areas as well as difficulties with their protection against investment pressure.

Preservation of natural and landscape values of these areas is not a concern of local authorities focused on the economic development and the economic effects of how the communities function. As a result of investment pressures and irreversible impairment, many parts of them are eligible for exclusion from the borders of these areas. The degree of degradation and intensity of changes is a function of the distance from the most densely populated core of the metropolis, investment pressure and directions of urban development as well as natural characteristics of protected areas, predisposing them to fulfilling various functions. The article focuses, in particular, on selected areas of the protected landscape. They are covered by the weakest protective regime and are subject to the strongest changes.


Keywords


landscape parks; protected landscape areas; suburbanization; metropolitan area; threats to ecosystems; investment pressure

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ahmad F. & Goparaju L., 2016, Analysis of Urban Sprawl Dynamics Using Geospatial Technology in Ranchi City, Jharkhand, India. Journal of Environmental Geography 9(1-2): 7-13.

Antrop M., 2004, Landscape change and the urbanization process in Europe. Landscape and Urban Planning 67(1-4): 9-26.

Bagan H. & Yamagata Y., 2014, Land-cover change analysis in 50 global cities by using a combination of Landsat data and analysis of grid cells. Environmental Research Letters. 9(6): 1-14.

Czochański J.T., 2013, Monitoring of Regional Development. Methodological and Implementation Aspects, Studia Vol. CXLiX. Committee for Spatial Economy and Regional Planning, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw: 1-363.

Oegórska B., 2010. Transformation of rural areas into urban areas within the Warsaw metropolitan area in the early 21st centuries, IGU Conference. Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.

Oegórska B., 2012, Spatial growth of urbanised land within the Warsaw metropolitan area in the first decade of the 21st century. Geographia Polonica 85(3): 77-95.

Golędzinowska A., 2012, Public space in medium-sized town – Role in development policy. 48th ISOCARP Congress. (http://www.isocarp.net/Data/case_stud- ies/2223.pdf).

Golędzinowska A., 2015, Transformation of the public space of a medium-sized city in the conditions of a market economy in Poland: doctoral dissertation. Faculty of Architecture of the Gdańsk University of Technology, Gdańsk, mscr.

Helene B., 2006, The socio-residential dynamic of a Latin American city: Puebla, Mexico. Cathiers de geographie du Quebec 50(139): 45-63.

Herbich J. (ed.), 2004, Wody słodkie i torfowiska. Poradniki ochrony siedlisk i gatunków Natura 2000 - podręcznik metodyczny, T. 2. Ministerstwo Środowiska [Fresh waters and peat bogs. A guide to the protection of Natura 2000 habitat and species – methodological manual, Vol.2. Ministry of Environment], Warszawa.

Jat M.K., Garg P.K. & Khare O., 2008, Monitoring and modelling of urban sprawl using remote sensing and GIS techniques. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 10(1): 26-43.

Jędraszko A., 2005, Spatial development in Poland - roads and off-roads of statutory regulations. Wyd. PLATON, Warsaw.

Knox P.L., 1991, The Restless Urban Landscape: Economic and sociocultural change and the Transformation of Metropolitan Washington, DC. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 81(2): 181-203. Lisowski A. & Grochowski M., 2008, Suburbanisation processes. Pre-conditions, forms and consequences, [in:] Expert opinions for the National Spatial Oevelopment Concept 2008-2033, Vol. I. Ministry of Regional Development, Warsaw.

Łonkiewicz B., 1996, Predictions and objectives of the protection of selected types of forest, [in:] B. Łonkiewicz (ed.), Protection and sustainable use of forests in Poland. IUCN Fundation, Poland, Warsaw: 35-45.

Maktav O., Erbek F.S. & Jilrgens C., 2005, Remote sensing of urban areas. International Journal of Remote Sensing 26(4): 655-659.

Mallinis G., Koutsias N. & Arianoutsou M., 2014, Monitoring land use/land cover transformations from 1945 to 2007 in two peri-urban mountainous areas of Athens metropolitan area, Greece. Sci. Total Environment 490: 262-278.

Mallupattu P.K. & Sreenivasula Reddy J.R., 2013, Analysis of Land Use/Land Cover Changes Using Remote Sensing Data and GIS at an Urban Area, Tirupati, India. The Scientific World Journal 2013: 1-6.

Nalej M., 2016, Agricultural land cover changes in metropolitan areas of Poland for the period 1990-2012. Miscellanea Geographica, Regional Studies on Development 20(2): 39-45.

Protected landscape areas in Gdańsk Voivodeship, 1984. Department of Design, Maintenance and Management of Green Areas, HORTUS, Gdańsk.

Przewoźniak M., 2017, Protection of nature and landscape of Kashubia. Critical firsthand study. Bogucki Wydawnictwo Naukowe, Gdańsk-Poznań.

Radziejowski J., 2011, Areas of protected nature. History, current state, challenges of the future. Wszechnica Polska Szkoła Wyższa TWP, Warszawa.

Report on economic losses and social costs of uncontrolled urbanisation in Poland, 2013, IGiPZ Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw. (http://www.frdl.org.pl/pliki/frdl/document/zalaczniki_artykuly/Raport%20Ekonomiczny%2029.10.2013%20calosc.pdf).

Sas-Bojarska A., 2007, Predicting landscape changes in spatial management using environmental impact assessments on the example of transport. Wyd. PPWIB, Gdańsk.

Solon J., 2009. Spatial context of urbanization: Landscape pattern and changes between 1950 and 1990 in the Warsaw metropolitan area. Poland. Landscape Urban Planning 93: 250-261.

Spatial development plan for the Gdańsk-Gdynia-Sopot Metropolitan Area 2030, 2016, Pomorskie Biuro Planowania Regionalnego, Gdańsk. (http://pbpr.pomorskie.eu/documents/294485/1406824/PZ-POM+2030+-+30.12.2016.pdf/).

Szyda B., 2013, Urbanization of the village in the zone of the city’s influence and the spatial policy of the commune authorities. Study of Częstochowa, Kielce and Radom. Studies of Rural Areas. 34: 149-160.

The concept of the ecological network of Pomeranian Voivodeship for the needs of spatial planning, 2014, collective work. Pomorskie Biuro Planowania Regionalnego, Gdańsk. (http://pbpr.pomorskie.eu/documents/294485/428264/Koncepcja+sieci+ekologicznej+regionu_2014.pdf).

Ustawa z dnia 16 kwietnia 2004 r. o ochronie przyrody, Oz.U. 2018 poz. 142, 2018, Kancelaria Prezesa Rady Ministrów [Nature Conservation Act of 16 April 2004, Journal of Laws 2018 item 142, 2018, Chancellery of the Prime Minister], Warszawa.

Zhang H., Qi Z., Ye X., Cai Y., Ma W. & Chen M., 2013, Analysis of land use/land cover change, population shift, and their effects on spatiotemporal patterns of urban heat islands in metropolitan Shanghai, China. Applied Geography 44: 121-133.

Zuziak Z., 2005, Suburban zone in the architecture of the city. Towards a new urban region architecture, [in:] P. Lorens (ed.), Problems of suburbanization. Bibl. Urbanisty 7. Urbanista, Warszawa.




Partnerzy platformy czasopism