Student-Athletes in american model of sport – characteristic of university sport in USA

Marek Owsianny



This article concerns the continously actual issue of deeming student-athletes in United States of America employees of their universities, where they study and which they represent in various sports competitions. This text is not an attempt to take a stand on an aforementioned issue, however it does present the most important factors creating that dispute. Moreover it adduces the most representative and significant judicial cases and other from federal level which are connected with this issue, i.e.: the Northwestern University petition, the Ed O’Bannon’s lawsuit or the lawsuit of Samantha Sackos. What is more, the author tries to identify the essential frames where bylaws sholud be altered in order to improve the situation of student-athletes, which does not necessarily result in granting them an employee status on the other hand.

The author based his characteristic and analysis of this issue on a representative collection of publications by american authors, various documents and other materials issued by organizations which function in the American sports environment (e.g. NCAA) and the most significant rulings connected with academic sport. In order to exemplify the above-mantioned issues, the author used several times chosen press materials.

This article presents major features of the American academic sport. It brings closer the most important matters linked with practinig sport by students at universities in the United States and relationships between student-athletes, univesities, agents, different types of organizations and professional leagues. Description of the system established in academic sport in the United States gives also the opportunity to identify and evaluate its advantages and disadvantages.


sport; university; player; student; NCAA; NFL; NBA; NHL; MLB; draft; sports agent; scholarship; dual career; kariera dwutorowa; akademicki; zawodnik; agent sportowy; stypendia

Full Text:

PDF (Polish)


-16 NCAA Division I Manual, 2015, NCAA, Indianapolis.

About CLC, (dostęp: 6 lutego 2016).

About the NCAA, (dostęp: 2 lutego 2016).

Briley R., 2013, The Blind Side (2009) [w: ] red. Nelson M. R., American Sports: A History of Icons, Idols, and Ideas, Vol. 1: A-D, Santa Barbara-Denver-Oxford, Greenwood, s. 142.

College Football Stadium Comparisons, (dostęp: 2 lutego 2016).

Congressional Digest, 2015, Scholarship Student-Athletes are ”Employees”. The National Labor Relations Board’s NorthwesternUniversity Ruling,Vol. 94 Issue 6, s. 3, 4, 32.

Division I Committee on Infractions, (dostęp: 5 lutego 2016).

Divisional Differences and the History of Multidivision Classification, (dostęp: 2 lutego 2016).

Field Operations Handbook – 6/12/98 Chapter 10, (dostęp: 6 lutego 2016 r.).

Hanlon S. M., 2006, Athletic Scholarships as Unconscionable Contracts of Adhesion: Has the NCAA Fouled Out?, Sports Lawyers Journal, s. 42-77.

Levin J., 2016, This Story About Ohio State’s Joey Bosa Shows Everything That’s Wrong With College Sports, ar_in _solitude_that_s_depressing.html (dostęp: 3 lutego 2016).

McArdle D., 2015, Dispute Resolution in Sport, Routledge, Londyn-Nowy Jork.

McCann M., 2015a, Breaking down implications of NLRB ruling on Northwestern players union, (dostęp: 6 lutego 2016).

McCann M., 2015b, O'Bannon expands NCAA lawsuit, (dostęp: 6 lutego 2016).

McCann M., 2015c, What Ed O'Bannon's victory over the NCAA means moving forward, (dostęp: 6 lutego 2016).

Maisel I., 2002, Ya Gotta Love This Guy, Sports Illustrated, 0038822X, Tom 96, nr 1, s. 48.

Mans L. K., Gibbs J. E., 2015, Student Athletes as Employees?, Florida Bar Journal, Vol. 89 Issue 4, s. 34-37.

Niesen J., 2016, Joey Bosa’s disappearing act: Why the Ohio State star spent last fall in solitude after an off-season mistake, (dostęp: 3 lutego 2016).

Pennington B., 2012, Big Dream, Rude Awakening, sports/ncaafootball/universities-chase-big-time-glory-in-fbs.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0 (dostęp: 31 grudnia 2015).

Rams headed back to Los Angeles; Chargers have option to join, nfl/story/_/id/14558668/st-louis-rams-relocate-los-angeles (dostęp: 2 lutego 2016).

Report: NCAA investigating Ole Miss for alleged rules violations, 2015, news/story/0ap3000000500087/article/report-ncaa-investigating-ole-miss-for-alleged-rules-violations (dostęp: 3 stycznia 2016).

Ross T., 2015, Cracking the cartel. Don’t pay NCAA football and basketball players, The New Republic, s. 45-51.

Ustawa z 26 czerwca 1974 r. Kodeks pracy, Dz.U. 1974 nr 24 poz. 141 ze zm.

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


  • There are currently no refbacks.

The journal has had 5 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. § 8. 2) and § 12. 1. 2) 22.02.2019.

e-ISSN: 2450-3118
Numer DOI: 10.12775/QS

Action funded by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education under the contract number 916/P-DUN/2019 by funds dedicated to dissemination of research findings. Name of action: "Preparing for publication papers in English in 8 issues of the journal Quality in Sport in 2019-2020: Vol. 5, No. 1-4 (2019), Vol. 6, No. 1-4 (2020)".

Partnerzy platformy czasopism