Kamil Nowak

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12775/CJFA.2017.018


This paper briefly analyzes American retirement system and bares its shortcomings. The post crisis economic reality, low savings rates and misguided policy changes, requires searches for new retirement solutions. Especially it’s worth to have a second look at costs of traditional retirement products. Analysis of mutual funds expense ratios and financial advisors fees proofs their significant impact on future retirement. New products based on ETFs and managed by robo advisors are the low cost alternative. The substance of this paper is cost comparison of traditional retirement products with innovative FinTech solutions. In a result of this analysis robo advisors and ETFs turned out to be definitely more cost effective, what makes investing more accessible and substantially increases future retirement.


robo advisors; ETF; retirement

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