Adaptation, integration and acculturation of foreign athletes in sports organizations in Romania and France
Keywordssport management, multiculturalism, adaptation, integration, aculturalisation, cross cultural skills
AbstractWe live in an increasingly globalized and culturally diverse society, in which individuals with different cultural backgrounds, different education, different personalities and different values must work together and achieve optimal results. Moreover, these cultural differences are noticeable even within a group of people of the same nationality. At the same time, lately there are more and more bicultural individuals, who belong simultaneously to different cultures. Nowadays, sport has an enormous impact on society, being an extremely popular phenomenon on a global scale and which has become a business in which huge sums are spent. Sport can have both a unifying effect, bringing together different individuals, but at the same time it can emphasize cultural differences and deep ethnic differences. All these arguments justify the increased interest in multiculturalism in general, and in multiculturalism in sport in particular. Using SPSS software, this study proposes a quantitative comparative analysis of how the country in which athletes evolve, namely Romania and France, influences adaptation, self-confidence, team integration and market share of athletes.
Adler, N. J. International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior, 4thEdn. South-Western, Thomson Learning, 2002.
Berry, J. W. Constructing and expanding a framework: Opportunities for developing acculturation research. Applied Psychology, 1997, 46(1), 62-68.
Ancelotti, C. Quiet Leadership: winning hearts, minds and matches. Penguin UK, 2016.
Hofstede, G. Empirical models of cultural differences, 1991
Piraudeau, B. Migrations des footballeurs internationaux en direction des marchés footballistiques émergents. Géographie et cultures, 2017, (104), 11-35.
Ryba, T.V., Schinke, R.J., Stambulova, N.B. & Elbe, A.M.: ISSP position stand: Transnationalism, mobility, and acculturation in and through sport, International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 2017, DOI: 10.1080/1612197X.2017.1280836
Ryba, T. V., Stambulova, N. B., & Ronkainen, N. J. Transnational athletic career and cultural transitions. The Routledge international encyclopedia of sport and exercise psychology. London, UK: Routledge, 2020.
Stambulova, N. B., Ryba, T. V., & Henriksen, K. Career development and transitions of athletes: The international society of sport psychology position stand revisited. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 2020, 1-27.
Potrac, P., Jones, R. L., Gilbourne, D., & Nelson, L. ‘Handshakes, BBQs, and bullets’: self-interest, shame and regret in football coaching. Sports coaching review, 2012, 1(2), 79-92.
Roderick, M., & Schumaker, J. ‘The whole week comes down to the team sheet’: The problem of work and non-work in professional football. Work, Employment and Society, 2017, 31(1), 166-174.
Roderick, M. The work of professional football. Taylor & Francis, 2006.
Darpatova-Hruzewicz, D., & Book Jr, R. T. Applying a relational lens to ethnographic inquiry: Storied insight into the inner workings of multicultural teams in men's elite football. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 2021, 54, 101886.
Khomutova, A. Basketball coaches’ experience in working with multicultural teams: Central and Northern European perspectives. Sport in Society, 2016, 19(7), 861-876.
Light, R. L., Evans, J. R., & Lavallee, D. The cultural transition of Indigenous Australian athletes’ into professional sport. Sport, Education and Society, 2019, 24(4), 415-426.
Morela, E., Hatzigeorgiadis, A., Sánchez, X., Papaioannou, A., & Elbe, A. M. Empowering youth sport and acculturation: Examining the hosts’ perspective in Greek adolescents. Psychology of sport and exercise, 2017, 30, 226-235.
Richardson, D., Littlewood, M., Nesti, M., & Benstead, L. An examination of the migratory transition of elite young European soccer players to the English Premier League. Journal of sports sciences, 2012, 30(15), 1605-1618.
Roderick, M. Domestic moves: An exploration of intra-national labour mobility in the working lives of professional footballers. International review for the sociology of sport, 2013, 48(4), 387-404.
Ronkainen, N. J., Khomutova, A., & Ryba, T. V. “If my family is okay, I’m okay”: Exploring relational processes of cultural transition. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 2019, 17(5), 493-508.
Ryba, T. V., Stambulova, N. B., & Ronkainen, N. J. The work of cultural transition: An emerging model. Frontiers in Psychology, 2016, 7, 427.
Schinke, R. J., McGannon, K. R., Battochio, R. C., & Wells, G. D. Acculturation in elite sport: a thematic analysis of immigrant athletes and coaches. Journal of sports sciences, 2013, 31(15), 1676-1686.
Stamp, D., Potrac, P., & Nelson, L. J. More than just a ‘Pro’: a relational analysis of transition in professional football. Sport, Education and Society, 2021, 26(1), 72-86.
Storm, L. K., Henriksen, K., Larsen, C. H., & Christensen, M. K. Influential relationships as contexts of learning and becoming elite: Athletes' retrospective interpretations. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 9(6), 2014, 1341-1356.
Meisterjahn, R. J., & Wrisberg, C. A. " Everything was different": a qualitative study of us professional basketball players'experiences overseas. Athletic Insight, 2013, 5(3), 251.
Schinke, R. J., Blodgett, A. T., McGannon, K. R., Ge, Y., Oghene, O., & Seanor, M. A composite vignette on striving to become “someone” in my new sport system: The critical acculturation of immigrant athletes. The sport psychologist, 2016, 30(4), 350-360.
Book Jr, R. T., Henriksen, K., & Stambulova, N. Oatmeal is better than no meal: the career pathways of African American male professional athletes from underserved communities in the United States. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 2020, 1-20.
Middleton, T. R., Schinke, R. J., Oghene, O. P., McGannon, K. R., Petersen, B., & Kao, S. Navigating times of harmony and discord: The ever-changing role played by the families of elite immigrant athletes during their acculturation. Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology, 2020, 9(1), 58.
Ryba, T. V., Ronkainen, N. J., & Selänne, H. Elite athletic career as a context for life design. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 2015, 88, 47-55.
Wylleman, P., & Johnson, U. Sport psychology and the Olympic Games: An introduction in the special issue. Psychology of sport and exercise, 2012, 13(5), 658-659.
Blodgett, A. T., & Schinke, R. J. “When you're coming from the reserve you're not supposed to make it”: Stories of Aboriginal athletes pursuing sport and academic careers in “mainstream” cultural contexts. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 2015, 21, 115-124.
Schinke, R. J., & Hanrahan, S. J. Cultural sport psychology. Human Kinetics, 2009.
Gill, D. L.“Gender and Cultural Diversity.” In Handbook of Sport Psychology, edited by G. Tenenbaum and R. C. Eklund, 823–844. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2007.
Gill, D., and C. S. Kamphoff. “Gender and Cultural Considerations.” In Applied Sport Psychology: Personal Growth to Peak Performance, edited by J. Williams, 2010, 417–439. Dubuque, IA: McGraw Hill.
Berry. J.W. & Kalin. R. Multicultural and ethnic attitudes in Canada. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 1995, 27. 301-320.
Berry, J. W. Acculturation: Living successfully in two cultures. International journal of intercultural relations, 2005, 29(6), 697-712.
Berry, J. W. Acculturation strategies and adaptation, 2007.
Cameron, J. E., & Lalonde, R. N. (1994). Self, ethnicity, and social group memberships in two generations of Italian Canadians. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 1994, 20(5), 514-520.
LaFromboise, T., Coleman, H. L., & Gerton, J. Psychological impact of biculturalism: Evidence and theory. Psychological bulletin, 1993, 114(3), 395.
Padilla, A. The role of cultural awareness and ethnic loyalty in acculturation. In A. Padilla (Ed.). Acculturation: Theory, models and some new findings, 1980, (pp.47-84). Boulder: Westview Press.
Szapocznik, J. & Kurtines. W. Family psychology and cultural diversity. American Psychologist, 1993, 8,400407.
Clanet, C. L'interculturel: introduction aux approches interculturelles en éducation et en sciences humaines. Presses universitaires du Mirail, 1990.
Berry, J. W. Acculturation: A conceptual overview, 2006.
Ward, C., & Leong, C. H. 29 Intercultural relations in plural societies. The Cambridge handbook of acculturation psychology, 2006, 484.
Ward, C., Stuart, J., & Kus, L. (2011). The construction and validation of a measure of ethno-cultural identity conflict. Journal of personality assessment, 2011, 93(5), 462-473.
Ward, C. Probing identity, integration and adaptation: Big questions, little answers. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 2013, 37(4), 391-404.
Savu, V. C., & Moisescu, P. C. Experiment on the management of the last minutes in a football game of republican juniors. Gymnasium, 2017, 17(2).
International Organization for Migration. (2013). Facts and figures. from http://www.iom.int/infographics/migration-facts-and-figures, accessed on 10.01.2021.
Schwartz, S. J., Unger, J. B., Zamboanga, B. L., & Szapocznik, J. Rethinking the concept of acculturation: implications for theory and research. American Psychologist, 2010, 65(4), 237.
Kontos, A. P. Multicultural sport psychology in the United States. Cultural sport psychology, 2009, 103-116.
Schinke, R. J., & McGannon, K. R. Reframing acculturation of immigrant athletes as reciprocal: Expanding the applied landscape in sport. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 2014, 12, 64-75.
Lonner, W. J., Berry, J. W., & Hofstede, G. H. Culture's consequences: International differences in work-related values. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign's Academy for Entrepreneurial Leadership Historical Research Reference in Entrepreneurship, 1980.
Brandão, M. R. F., & Vieira, L. F. Athletes’ careers in Brazil: Research and application in the land of ginga. Athletes’ careers across cultures, 2013, 43-52.
Ryba, T. V., Stambulova, N. B., Ronkainen, N. J., Bundgaard, J., & Selänne, H. Dual career pathways of transnational athletes. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 2015, 21, 125-134.
Ryba, T. V., & Stambulova, N. B. The turn towards a culturally informed approach to career research and assistance in sport psychology. Athletes’ careers across cultures, 2013, 1-16.
Sam, D., & Berry, J. Acculturation and Adaptation.”. Handbook of cross-cultural psychology: Social behavior and applications, 1997, 3.
Mihut, I. Dimensiuni culturale în managementul românesc. Management & Marketing-Bucharest, 2006, (1), 5-26.
Condon, E. M., Golden, B. L., & Wasil, E. A. Predicting the success of nations at the Summer Olympics using neural networks. Computers & Operations Research, 1999, 26(13), 1243-1265.
Szymanski, S. A market test for discrimination in the English professional soccer leagues. Journal of political Economy, 108(3), 2000, 590-603.
Hoffmann, R., Ging, L. C., & Ramasamy, B. The socio-economic determinants of international soccer performance. Journal of Applied economics, 2002, 5(2), 253-272.
Kuper, G. H., & Sterken, E. Olympic participation and performance since 1896. Available at SSRN 274295, 2001.
De Bosscher, V., Bingham, J., & Shibli, S. The global sporting arms race: An international comparative study on sports policy factors leading to international sporting success. Meyer & Meyer Verlag, 2008.
Szymanski, M., Fitzsimmons, S. R., & Danis, W. M. (2019). Multicultural managers and competitive advantage: Evidence from elite football teams. International Business Review, 2019, 28(2), 305-315.
Boia, L. De ce este România altfel?. Humanitas SA, 2012.
https://www.netbet.com/multicultural-championship#!/country/rou, accessed on 8.01.2021
https://www.netbet.com/multicultural-championship#!/country/fra, accessed on 8.01.2021
Babbie, E. R., Halley, F., & Zaino, J. Adventures in social research: data analysis using SPSS 14.0 and 15.0 for Windows. Pine Forge Press, 2007.
George, D., & Mallery, P. IBM SPSS statistics 26 step by step: A simple guide and reference. Routledge, 2019.
Huizingh, E. Applied statistics with SPSS. Sage, 2007.
Kinnear, P. R., & Gray, C. D. IBM SPSS Statistics 18 made simple. Psychology Press, 2011.
www.transfermarkt.de, accessed on 8 January, 2021.
How to Cite
Number of views and downloads: 7
Number of citations: 0