Sport technique as a determinant of athletes’ personality
Keywordssport psychology, theory of sport, personality, sport technique, NEO-FFI
Background & Aim: In sports, three groups of sports disciplines can be distinguished depending on the way of performing movement actions: a group with a significant degree of kinematic stabilization in the structure of sports technique; a group with a significant degree of stabilization of the dynamic structure of sports technique; a group with a significant degree of variation in sports technique. This study was intended to determine whether sport technique, depending on the degree of stabilisation and variability of movement actions, is a differentiator of athletes’ personality. Method: 90 Polish athletes (men, N=90) from clubs operating in the Polish region of Lower Silesia were purposefully selected for the study as part of three samples: breakdancers (n=30), swimmers (n=30) and shotokan style karatekas (n=30). All the subjects had been considerably successful at international sport competitions. The age of the subjects ranged between 20 and 29 years. The research method chosen was the NEO-FFI Personality Inventory. The basic statistical methods used were a one-way analysis of variance and post-hoc tests. The level of significance was set as the probability of p<0.05. The statistical analysis was performed using the Statistica 13.1 program. Results: Statistically significant differences were revealed in neuroticism among all of the groups studied, in extraversion – between dancers and karatekas, in openness to experience – between dancers and karatekas and between swimmers and karatekas, and in agreeableness – between dancers and karatekas. No statistically significant differences were revealed with regard to conscientiousness. Conclusions: Sport technique is a determinant of athletes’ personality. In addition, sport technique, depending on the degree of stabilisation and variability, is a differentiator of athletes’ personality. Therefore, athletes practising different sport disciplines are characterised by different personalities.
Allen M.S., Greenlees I., Jones M. (2011) An investigation of the five-factor model of personality and coping behaviour in sport. Journal of Sport Sciences, 29, 841-850.
Allen M.S., Greenlees I., Jones M. (2013) Personality in sport: a comprehensive review. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 6, 184-208.
Allen M.S., Laborde S. (2014) The role of personality in sport and physical activity. Current directions in psychological science, 23, 460-465.
Anghel A., Banica I., Ionescu S. (2009) Personality features of elite athletes considering the criterion of the sport practiced, Sport Science Review, 1, 5-6.
Backmand H., Kapiro J., Kujala U., Sarna S. (2003) Personality and mood of former elite athletes: a descriptive study. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 22, 215-221.
Binboga E., Guven S., Catikkas F., Bayazit O., Tok, S. (2012) Psychophysiological responses to competition and the Big Five personality traits. Journal of Human Kinetics, 33, 187-194.
Boostani M.H., Boostani M.A., Rezaei A.M. (2013) Sport psychology in professional karate athletes: give psychological guidelines in order to improve their act in the competitions. Annals of Biological Research, 4 (1), 48-52.
Blecharz J., Siekańska M. (2005) Physical trauma and mental condition of the athlete. Medicina Sportiva, 9 (3), 1-6.
Brizin D., Kernspecht K.R. (2014) Introduction to Combat Logic – A General Theory. Ido Movement for Culture. Journal of Martial Arts Anthropology, 14 (4), 24-30.
Costa Jr P., McCrae R. (2007) Personality Inventory Five Factor Model Test. Psychological Assessment Resources, Odessa, FL.
Czajkowski Z. (2006) The influence of chosen factors on athletes’ competition results in different stages of training – exemplified by fencing. Ido Ruch dla Kultury / Movement for Culture, 6, 116-123.
Ekinci Y., Hosany S. (2006) Destination personality: An application of brand personality to tourism destinations. Journal of Travel Research, 45 (2), 127-139.
Franchini E., Takito M.Y., Bertuzzi R.C.M. (2005) Morphological, physiological and technical variables in high-level college judoists. Archives of Budo, 1 (1): 1–7.
Fuller J. (2011) Martial arts and psychological health: Psychology and Psychotherapy. British Journal of Medicine and Psychology, 61 (4), 317-328.
Hill D.M., Hanton S., Matthews N., Fleming S. (2010) Choking in sport: a review. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 3 (1), 24-39.
Ilyasi G., Salehian M.H. (2011) Comparison of personality traits between individual and team athletes. Middle East Journal of Scientific Research, 9 (4), 527-530.
John O.P., Naumann L.P., Soto C.J. (2008) Paradigm shift to the integrative Big-Five trait taxonomy: History, Measurement, and Conceptual Issues [in:] O.P. John, R.W. Robins, L.A. Pervin (eds.) Handbook of person¬ality: Theory and research, The Guilford Press, New York, 114-158.
Kajtna T., Tusak M., Barić R., Burnik S. (2004) Personality in high-risk sports athletes. Kinesiology, 36 (1), 24-34.
Lees A. (2002) Technique analysis in sports: a critical review. Journal of Sports Sciences, 20 (10), 813-828.
Liu H., Gómez M.A., Gonçalves B., Sampaio J. (2016) Technical performance and match-to-match variation in elite football teams. Journal of Sports Science, 34, 509–518.
Owen A.L., Wong D.P., Paul D., Dellal A. (2014) Physical and technical comparisons between various-sided games within professional soccer. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 35, 286-292.
McCrae R., Costa Jr P. (2003) Personality in Adulthood: A Five-Factor theory perspective, The Guildford Press, New York.
McKelvie S.J., Lemieux P., Stout D. (2003) Extraversion and neuroticism in contact athletes, no contact athletes and non-athletes: a research note. Journal of Sport Psychology, 5 (3), 19-27.
Mirzaei A., Nikbakhsh R., Sharififar F. (2013) The relationship between personality traits and sport performance. European Journal of Experimental Biology, 3 (3), 439-442.
Piedmont R.L., Hill D., Blanco S. (1999) Predicting athletic performance using the five factor model of personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 27, 769-777.
Piepiora P., Cięszczyk I., Krzesiński M. (2017) Young athlete personality model using the example of selected sport disciplines. Roczniki Naukowe Wyższej Szkoły Wychowania Fizycznego i Turystyki w Białymstoku, 22 (4), 5-13.
Piepiora P., Kaśków K. (2019) Personality profile of Polish Volleyball players – a case study of players at various sports levels. Quality in Sport, 5 (2), 47-57.
Piepiora P., Migasiewicz J., Witkowski K. (2016a) The traditional karate training and sports fight systems of kumite. Roczniki Naukowe Wyższej Szkoły Wychowania Fizycznego i Turystyki w Białymstoku, 18 (4), 62-67.
Piepiora P., Petecka A. (2020) Personality profile of women practising contact sports using the example of karate kyokushin competitors and handball players. Ido Movement for Culture. Journal of Martial Arts Anthropology, 20 (1), 23-29.
Piepiora P., Piepiora D., Witkowski K. (2016b) Personality of the karatekas versus kumite sport fight systems (in view of the karate culture as the regulator of this interdependence). Journal of Combat Sports and Martial Arts, 7 (1), 35-41.
Piepiora P., Piepiora Z. (2015) The karate culture as the regulator of interdependence between permitted level of violence in different kumite systems and personality of contestants. Human And Social Sciences at the Common Conference, 3 (1), 23-27.
Piepiora P., Sadowska M., Supiński J. (2019) The personality profile of ultimate frisbee players based on gender. Quality in Sport, nr 5 (4), 28-34.
Piepiora P., Szmajke A., Migasiewicz J., Witkowski K. (2016c) The karate culture and aggressiveness in kumite competitors. Ido Movement for Culture. Journal of Martial Arts Anthropology, 16 (2), 41-47.
Piepiora P., Witkowski K. (2015) Technical preparation of karate competitor for kumite sports fight. Advanced Research in Scientific Areas, 4 (1), 130-133.
Piepiora P., Witkowski K. (2018) Personality traits of competitive athletes according to type of pressure exerted on opponents. South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation, 40 (1), 97-109.
Piepiora P., Witkowski K., Piepiora Z. (2018) Personality profiles of karate masters practising different kumite styles. Archives of Budo, 14, 231-241.
Potop V. (2014) Biomechanical Analysis of Sports Technique Key Elements in Back Double Somersault Dismount off Uneven Bars-Junior Gymnasts 12 to 14 Years Old. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 117, 203-209.
Reguli Z., Kalichova M., Zvonar M. (2011) Comparative Kinematical Analysis of Forward Roll Fall, Side Fall, and Forward Break Fall in Individual Kinematic Model. Ido Movement for Culture. Journal of Martial Arts Anthropology, 11 (4), 19-26.
Sanders R., Gibson B., Prassas S. (2002) Technique and timing in the women's reverse two and one half somersault tuck (305C) and the men's reverse two and one half somersault pike (305B) 3 m springboard dives. Sports Biomechanics, 1 (2), 193-212.
Shipley B.A., Weiss G., Der G., Taylor M.D., Dearly I.J. (2007) Neuroticism, extraversion and mortality in the UK Health and lifestyle survey: A 21-year prospective cohort study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 69 (9), 923-931.
Shrivastaval P., Gopal R., Singh Y. (2010) A Study of Personality Dimensions in Sports Performance. Journal of Exercise Science and Physiotherapy, 1, 39-42.
Soto C.J., John O.P., Gosling S.D., Potter J. (2008) The developmental psychometrics of Big Five self-reports: acquiescence, factor structure, coherence, and differentiation from ages 10 to 20. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94, 718-737.
Szajna G. (2006) Differentiating exercises during a fencing lesson as a way of teaching epee fencing technique. Ido Ruch dla Kultury / Movement for Culture, 6, 142-152.
Tok S. (2011) The Big Five personality traits and risky sport participation. Social Behaviour and Personality an International Journal, 39, 1105-1012.
Tolea M.I., Terracciano A., Simonsick E.M., Metter T.J., Costa Jr. P, Ferrucci L. (2012) Associations between personality traits, physical activity level and muscle strength. Journal of Research in Personality, 46 (3), 264-270.
Tomczak M., Bręczewski G., Sokołowski M., Kaiser A., Czerniak U. (2013) Personality traits and stress coping styles in the Polish National Cadet Wrestling Team. Archives of Budo, 2, 161–168.
Terracciano A., Schrack J.A., Sutin A.R., Chan W., Simonsick E.M., Ferrucci L. (2013) Personality, metabolic rate and aerobic capacity. Plos One, 8 (1), 547-556.
Wiggins J. (1996) The Five-Factor model of personality, The Guildford Press, New York.
Witkowski K., Piepiora P., Leśnik M., Migasiewicz J. (2017) Social status of karate and personal benefits declared by adults practicing karate. Archives of Budo: Science of Martial Arts and Extreme Sports, 13, 179-184.
Zdebski J., Blecharz J. (2004) Looking for an optimum model of athlete’s support. Biology of Sport, 21 (2), 129-137.
How to Cite
Number of views and downloads: 138
Number of citations: 0