The Political Strategy of Nuncio Antonio Caetani in the Maze of the Imperial Court (1607–1611)

Paolo Periati

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12775/LEGATIO.2017.02

Abstract


The archbishop of Capua, Antonio Caetani (1566–1624), was an eminent member of a Roman aristocratic family. From 1607 to 1611, he resided at the Imperial court of Prague as Apostolic Nuncio in the service to Pope Paul V, where he witnessed the turmoil that gradually overwhelmed Bohemia, ruled at that point by Emperor Rudolf II of the House of Habsburg. Caetani moved in an orbit characterised by various coexisting political, local, confessional and social forces. His negotiations within the maze of the court were characterised by a wise and cautious approach of not interfering openly in Imperial affairs: a sort of ‘wait-and-see’ policy that was almost inevitable. This was firstly because of the Imperial ministers, who, instead of acting as a conduit to reach the ears of the sovereign, were actually considered obstructive and unhelpful because of their private aims, personal resentments, and often-outright hostility. Secondly, Caetani’s mission was hampered by the Rudolf II's suspicious nature: the Emperor feared papal intrusion in Imperial affairs. The papal nuncios did not merely embody the pope; they were also political subjects within networks of interpersonal relationships. Within these networks, they could practice their diplomatic roles, and also carry out (their own) personal affairs. Below, I will attempt to demonstrate how Caetani’s political strategy failed to establish fruitful relations with the courtiers and the Emperor.

Keywords


Antonio Caetani; councillors; courts; diplomacy; Imperial; nunciature; policy

Full Text:

PDF

References


Archival Sources

Rome, Archivio Caetani

Fondazione Camillo Caetani, Miscellanea

, 52951, 50052

Rome, Archivio Segreto Vaticano

Fondo Borghese

Serie II, 148, 160, 169, 264

Segreteria di Stato, Nunziature Diverse

Secretaria Brevium, Registra

, 418

Rome, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana

Barberiniani Latini

, 6910

Printed Primary Sources

Alidosi, Roderigo, Relazione di Germania e della Corte di Rodolfo II Imperatore negli Anni 1605–1607, ed. by Giuseppe Campori (Modena: Cappelli, 1872)

Černušák, Tomáš, ed., Epistulae et Acta Antonii Caetani 1607–1611: Pars IV. September 1608–Junius 1609. Epistulae et Acta Nuntiorum Apostolicorum apud Imperatorem 1592–1628 (Prague: Academia, 2013)

Gindely, Anton, Geschichte der Ertheilung des Böhmischen Majestätsbriefes von 1609 (Prague: Carl Bellman, 1868)

Giordano, Silvano, ed., Le Istruzioni Generali di Paolo V ai Diplomatici Pontifici: 1605–1621, 3 vols (Tübingen: Niemeyer, 2003)

Jaitner, Klaus, ed., Die Hauptinstruktionen Clemens’ VIII für die Nuntien und Legaten an den Europäischen Fürstenhofen (1502–1605), 2 vols (Tübingen: Niemeyer 1984)

Koller, Alexander, ed., Nuntiaturen des Giovanni Delfino und des Bartolomeo Portia (1577–1578) (Tübingen: Niemeyer, 2003)

———, ed., Die Aussenbeziehungen der Römischen Kurie unter Paul V Borghese (1605–1621) (Tübingen: Niemeyer, 2008)

Hausenblasová, Jaroslava, Der Hof Kaiser Rudolfs II.: Eine Edition der Hofstaatsverzeichnisse 1576–1612 (Prague: Artefactum, 2002)

Hurter, Friedrich von, Philipp Lang Kammerdiener Kaiser Rudolphs II: Eine Criminal-Geschichte aus dem Angang des Siebzehnten Jahrhunderts (Schaffhausen: Hurter, 1851)

Linhartová, Milena, ed., Epistulae et Acta Antonii Caetanii, 1607–1611. Epistulae et Acta Nuntiorum Apostolicorum apud Imperatorem, 1592–1628, 3 vols (Prague: Sumptibus Ministerii Scholarum et Instructionis Publicae, Typographia Rei Publicae, 1932–1946)

Meyer, Arnold O., Die Prager Nuntiatur des Giovanni Stefano Ferreri und die Wiener Nuntiatur des Giacomo Serra 1603–1606. Abteilung: 17. Jahrhundert, 2 vols (Berlin: Bath, 1913)

Mosconi, Natale, La Nunziatura di Praga di Cesare Speciano, 4 vols (Brescia: Morcelliana, 1966)

Riegger, Jesef A., ‘Aula Rudolphi II. Kaiserlicher Hoff Statt.’, Archiv der Geschichte und Statistik Inbes, 2 (1793), 193–262

Secondary Works

Ackermann, Kálmán, Cardinal and Archbishop of Esztergom, Ferenc Forgách: Biographical Studies to the Age of Counter-Reformation (Budapest: Heiler és Kózol Kőés Könyvnyomdai Műintézet, 1918)

Ágoston, Gábor, ‘La Frontière Militaire Ottomane en Hongrie’, Histoire, Économie et Société, 35, no. 3 (2015), 36–53

Almási, Gábor, and others, eds, A Divided Hungary in Europe: Exchanges, Networks and Representations, 1541–1699, 3 vols (Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2015)

Andor, Eszter, and István G. Tóth, eds, Frontiers of Faith: Religious Exchange and the Constitution of Religious Identities, 1400–1750 (Budapest: Central European University, 2001)

Andretta, Stefano, ‘Della Torre, Giovanni’, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, 37 (1989), 567–70

Asch, Ronald G., and Adolf M. Birke, eds, Princes, Patronage and the Nobility: The Court at the Beginning of the Modern Age, 1450–1650 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991)

Bahlcke, Joachim, Regionalismus und Staatsintegration im Widerstreit: Die Länder der Böhmischen Krone im Ersten Jahrhundert der Habsburgerherrschaft (1526–1619) (Munich: Oldenbourg, 1994)

———, ‘Calvinism and Estate Liberation Movements in Bohemia and Hungary (1570–1620)’, in The Reformation in Eastern and Central Europe, ed. by Karin Maag (London: Ashgate, 1997), pp. 72–92

———, Katholische Kirche und Kultur in Böhmen (Berlin: LIT, 2005)

Barta, János, and others, eds,‘Einigkeit und Frieden Sollen auf Seiten Jeder Partei Sein’: Die Friedensschlüsse von Wien (23.06.1606) und Zsitvatorok (15.11.1606) (Debrecen: KLT, 2007)

Becker, Rotraud, ‘Milensio, Felice’, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, 74 (2010), 471–75

Belardini, Mario, ‘Antonio Bolognetti, Nunzio di Gregorio XIII’, Cheiron, 30 (1999), 171–200

Bruno, Giordano, Spaccio della Bestia Trionfante, ed. by Michele Ciliberto (Milan: Rizzoli, 1985)

Bucsay, Mihály, Der Protestantismus in Ungarn 1521–1978: Ungarns Reformationskirchen in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 2 vols (Vienna: Böhlau, 1977)

Bůžek, Václav and Pavel Marek, ‘Nemoci, smrt a pohřby Rudolfa II.’, Český Časopis Historický, 111, no. 1 (2013), 1–30

Castronovo, Valerio, ‘Borghese Caffarelli, Scipione’, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, 12 (1971), 620–24

Černušák, Tomáš, ‘Nuncio Caetani and His Defence of Catholic Interests in the Time Before the Letter of Majesty of Rudolf II (1608–1609)’, Časopis Matice Moravské, 128, no. 1 (2009), 35–46

———, ‘La Riconciliazione tra gli Asburgo – Parte del Programma della Diplomazia Papale nell’Anno 1608’, Bollettino dell’Istituto Storico Ceco di Roma (Rome/Prague: Commissione per l’Istituto Storico Ceco di Roma, 2009), 339–43

———, ‘The Papal Policy in the Bohemian Lands during Antonius Caetani’s Nunciature (1607–1609)’, Folia Historica Bohemica, 25, no. 1 (2010), 7–22

———, ‘The Papal Policy and Development of the “Brothers Crisis” in Nuncio Antonio Caetanis Correspondence’, in Ein Bruderzwist im Hause Habsburg (1608–1611), ed. by Václav Bůžek (České Budějovice: Jihočeská Univerzita v Českých Budějovicích, 2010), pp. 211–24

———, ‘The Prague Nunciature and the Beginnings of the German Catholic League’, The Czech Historical Review, 1 (2010), 114–26

———, ‘Main Stereotypes in the Correspondence of the Papal Nuncio Caetani from the Years 1608–1609 and Their Transformation’, Studia Historica Brunensia, 58, no. 1 (2011), 11–23

———, ‘The Papal Diplomats’ Tactics of Achieving Their Political Aims in Bohemia in 1608–1609’, Časopis Matice Moravské, 130 (2011), 29–40

———, ‘Un Pazzo sul Trono o un Sovrano con una Visione? Personalità e Politica dell’Imperatore Rodolfo II alla Luce delle Relazioni dei Nunzi Apostolici degli Anni 1608–1609’, Bollettino dell’Istituto Storico Ceco di Roma, 9 (2014), 61–74

Cuerva, Rubén G., Baltasar de Zúñiga: Una Encrucijada de la Monarquía Hispana (1561–1622) (Madrid: Polifemo, 2012)

David, Zdeněk V., and David R. Holeton, eds, The Bohemian Reformation and Religious Practice, 3 vols (Prague: Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 2000)

Drenas, Andrew, ‘The Standard-Bearer of the Roman Church: Lorenzo da Brindisi (1559–1619) and Capuchin Missions in the Holy Roman Empire’ (unpublished doctoral thesis, University of Oxford, 2014)

Duch, Arno, ‘Barvitius, Johann Anton’, Neue Deutsche Biographie, 1 (1953), 615 Duhamelle, Christophe, ‘L’Invention de la Coexistence Confessionnelle dans le

Saint-Empire (1555–1648)’, in Les Affrontements Religieux en Europe (1500–1650), ed. by Lucien Bély and others (Paris: Presses de l’Université Paris-Sorbonne, 2009), pp. 223–43

Ehrenpreis, Stefan, ‘Der Reichshofrat im System der Hofbehörden Kaiser Rudolfs II. (1576–1612): Organisation, Arbeitsabläufe, Entscheidungprozesse’, Mitteilungen des Österreichischen Staatsarchivs, 45 (1997), 187–205

———, Kaiserliche Gerichtsbarkeit und Konfessionskonflikt: Der Reichshofrat unter Rudolf II. 1576–1616 (Göttingen: Vandehoeck & Ruprecht, 2006)

———, ‘Rudolfs II. Ratgeber zur Zeit des Bruderzwists’, Opera Historica, 14 (2010), 91–101

Erlanger, Philippe, L’Empereur Insolite: Rodolphe II de Habsbourg, 1552–1612 (Paris: Michel, 1971)

Evans, Robert J. W., ‘Bohemia, the Emperor and the Porte, 1550–1600’, Oxford Slavonic Papers, 3 (1970), 85–106

———, Rudolf II and His World: A Study in Intellectual History, 1576–1612 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, Oxford University Press, 1973)

———, and Thomas V. Trevor, eds, Crown, Church and Estates: Central European Politics in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries (New York: St Martin’s, 1991)

Fosi, Irene, ‘Frontiere Inquisitoriali nel Sacro Romano Impero’, in Papato e Politica Internazionale nella Prima Età Moderna, ed. by Maria A. Visceglia (Rome: Viella, 2013), pp. 257–74

Frigo, Daniela, Politics and Diplomacy in Early Modern Italy: The Structure of Diplomatic Practice, 1450–1800 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996)

———, ‘Prudenza Politica e Conoscenza del Mondo: Un Secolo di Riflessione sulla Figura dell’Ambasciatore (1541–1643)’, in De l’Ambassadeur: Les Écrits Relatifs à l’Ambassadeur et à l’Art de Négocier du Moyen Âge au Début du XIXe Siècle, ed. by Stefano Andretta, Stéphane Péquignot, and Jean-Claude Waquet (Rome: Publications de l’École Française de Rome, 2015), pp. 227–69

Gui, Francesco, and Denisa De Angelis, eds, Boemia e Moravia nel Cuore dell’Europa (Rome: Bulzoni, 2009)

Haupt, Herbert, ‘Liechtenstein, Karl I. Fürst von und zu’, Neue Deutsche Biographie, 14 (1985), 515–17

Hausenblasová, Jaroslava, and others, Religion und Politik im Frühneuzeitlichen Böhmen: Der Majestätsbrief Kaiser Rudolfs II von 1609 (Stuttgart: Steiner, 2014)

Hrejsa, Ferdinand, Ceská Konfese, její Vznik, Podstata a Dejiny (Prague: Nákl. České Akademie Císaře Františka Josefa pro Vědy, Slovesnost a Umění, 1912)

Janácek, Josef, Rudolf II a Jeho Doba (Prague: Svoboda, 1987)

Kohler, Jochen, ‘Der Breitag der Prager Nuntiatur zur Festigung des Katholizismus in Ostmitteleuropa’, Historisches Jahrbuch, 93 (1973), 336–46

Koller, Alexander, ‘Die Böhmischen Länder im Spiegel der Berichte der Nuntien und Kurialen Instruktionen’, in Spolecnost v Zemích Habsburské Monarchie a Její Obraz v Pramenech (1526–1740), ed. by Václav Bůžek (České Budějovice: Jihočeská Univerzita v Českých Budějovicích, 2006), pp. 175–91

Koselleck, Reinhard, Futuro Passato: Per una Semantica dei Tempi Storici, trans. by A. Marietti Solmi (Genoa: Marietti, 1986)

Krones, Franz von, ‘Leopold V. Ferdinand’, Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 18 (1883), 398–402

———, ‘Trautson, Paul Sixt Freiherr’, Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 38 (1894), 522–24

Landfried, Franziska, ‘Hannewaldt von Eckersdorf, Andreas’, Neue Deutsche Biographie, 7 (1966), 621

Leitsch, Walter, ‘Rudolph II und Sudosteuropa, 1593–1606’, East European Quarterly, 6 (1974), 301–20

Louthan, Howard, and Graeme Murdock, eds, A Companion to the Reformation in Central Europe (Leiden: Brill, 2015)

Lutz, Georg, ‘Caetani, Antonio’, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, 16 (1973), 120–25

———, and Stefano Andretta, eds, Das Papsttum, die Christenheit und die Staaten Europas, 1592–1605 (Tübingen: Niemeyer, 1994)

Mahlmann, Theodor, ‘Leyser, Polykarp von’, Neue Deutsche Biographie, 14 (1985), 436–37

Mat’a, Petr, Svét Ceskè Aristokracie (1500–1700) (Prague: Lidové noviny, 2005)

———, ‘Constructing and Crossing Confessional Boundaries: The High Nobility and the Reformation of Bohemia’, in Diversity and Dissent: Negotiating Religious Difference in Central Europe, 1500–1800, ed. by Howard Louthan and others (New York/Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2011), pp. 10–29

Matoušek, Joseph, ‘K Problému Osobnosti Rudolfa II Poznámky o Pramenech, Literatuře a Metodě’, in K Dějinám Ceskoslovenským v Období Humanismu: Sborník Prací Věnovaných Dru Janu Bedřichu Novákovi k 60. Narozeninám, ed. by Bedřich Jenšovský and Bedřich Mendl (Prague: Československá Archivni Společnost, 1932), pp. 343–62

Meyer, Arnold O., ‘Zur Geschichte der Gegenreformation in Schlesien’, ZVGSchlesien, 38 (1904), 343–71

Murdock, Graeme, Calvinism on the Frontier 1600–1660: International Calvinism and the Reformed Church in Hungary and Transylvania (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994)

Niederkorn, Jan P., Die Europäischen Mächte und der “Lange Türkenkrieg” Kaiser Rudolfs II. (1593–1606) (Vienna: VÖAW, 1993)

Noflatscher, Heinz, ‘Regiment aus der Kammer? Einflussreiche Kleingruppen am Hof Rudolfs II’, in Der Fall des Günstlings: Hofparteien in Europa vom XIII bis zum XVII Jahrhundert, ed. by Jan Hirschbiegel and Werner Paravicini (Ostfildern: Thorbecke, 2004), pp. 209–34

Pálffy, Géza, The Kingdom of Hungary and the Habsburg Monarchy in the Sixteenth Century, trans. by Thomas J. and Helen D. DeKornfeld (New York: Hungarian Studies and Publications, 2009)

Pánek, Jaroslav, ‘Das Politische System des Böhmischen Staates im Ersten Jahrhundert der Habsburgischen Herrschaft (1526–1620)’, Mitteilungen des Instituts für Österreichische Geschichtsforschung, 97 (1989), 53–82

———, Poslední Rožmberkové: Velmoži Ceské Renesance (Prague: Panorama, 1989)

———, ‘The Question of Tolerance in Bohemia and Moravia in the Age of the Reformation’, trans. by P. Charvat, in Tolerance and Intolerance in the European Reformation, ed. by Ole P. Grill and Bob Scribner (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), pp. 231–48

———, ‘K Povaze Vlády Rudolfa II v Ceském Království’, Folia Historica Bohemica, 18 (1997), 71–98

Pazderová, Alena, ‘La Boemia Multiconfessionale e la Nunziatura di Cesare Speciano a Praga’, in Kaiser Hof, Papst Hof 16. – 18. Jahrhundert, ed. by Alexander Koller and others (Vienna: Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 2006), pp. 25–32

Periati, Paolo, ‘Antonio Caetani: L’Ascesa Politica e le Nunziature Apostoliche (1607–1618)’ (unpublished doctoral thesis, Università degli Studi Roma Tre, 2015)

———, ‘The Pope, the King and the Family: Triple Loyalty and Diplomatic Negotiations of the Apostolic Nuncio Antonio Caetani at the Court of Madrid (1611–1618)’, Librosdelacorte, 12, no. 8 (2016), 7–24

Pieper, Anton, ‘Der Augustiner Felice Milensio als Päpstlicher Berichterstatter am Regensburg Reichstag 1608’, Römische Quartalschrift, 5 (1891), 55–61, 151–58

Po-Chia Hsia, Ronnie, The World of Catholic Renewal 1540–1770 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998)

Polišenský, Josef, ‘Faction, Patronage and the Arts at the Court of Rudolph II’, in Prag um 1600: Kunst und Kultur am Hofe Rudolfs II, ed. by Jürgen Schultze (Freren: Luca, 1988), pp. 249–53

Reinhard, Wolfgang, ‘Zwang zur Konfessionalisierung? Prolegomena zu einer Theorie des Konfessionellen Zeitalters’, Zeitschrift für Historische Forschung, 10 (1983), 257–77

Reinhardt, Volker, Kardinal Scipione Borghese (1605–1633): Vermögen, Finanzen und Sozialer Aufstieg eines Papstnepoten (Tübingen: Niemeyer, 1984)

Rill, Bernd, Kaiser Matthias: Bruderzwist und Glaubenskampf (Graz: Styria, 1999)

Romani, Marzio A., ed, ‘La Corte in Europa: Fedeltà, Favori, Pratiche di Governo’, special issue of Cheiron, 1 (1983)

Sanfilippo, Matteo, and others, eds, Gli Archivi della Santa Sede e il Mondo Asburgico nella Prima Età Moderna (Viterbo: Sette Città, 2004)

Schille, Christa, ‘Christian II.’, Neue Deutsche Biographie, 3 (1957), 231

Schilling, Heinz, Konfessionalisierung und Staatsinteressen: Internationale Beziehungen 1559–1660 (Paderbon: Ferdinand Schöningh, 2007)

———, Konfessioneller Fundamentalismus: Religion als Politischer Faktor im Europäischen Mächtesystem um 1600 (Munich: Oldenbourg, 2007)

Schulze, Winfried, ‘Concordia, Discordia, Tolerantia: Deutsche Politik im Konfessionellen Zeitalter’, in Neue Studien zur Frühneuzeitlichen Reichgeschichte, ed. by Johannes Kunisch (Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, 1987), pp. 43–79

Schwarz, Henry F., and John I. Coddington, The Imperial Privy Council in the Seventeenth Century: With a Supplement: The Social Structure of the Imperial Privy Council, 1600–1674 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1943)

Seibt, Ferdinand, Die Böhmischen Länder zwischen Ost und West: Festschrift für Karl Bosl (Munich: Oldenbourg, 1983)

Signorotto, Gianvittorio, ‘Aristocrazie Italiane e Monarchia Cattolica nel XVII Secolo: Il Destino Spagnolo del Duca di Sermoneta’, Annali di Storia Moderna e Contemporanea, 2 (1996), 57–77

Stieve, Felix, ‘Lang, Philipp’, Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 17 (1883), 617–18

———, ‘Mollart, Ernst Freiherr von’, Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 22 (1885), 117–18

———, ‘Leopold Stralendorf, Freiherr von (seit 1607)’, Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 36 (1893), 493–95

Stloukal, Karel, ‘Karel z Lichtenštejna a Jeho Účast ve Vládě Rudolfa II (1569–1607)’, Český Časopis Historický, 18 (1912), 21–37

———, Papezská Politika a Císarsky Dvur Prazsky na Predelu XVI a XVII Veku (Prague: Kom. Řivnáče, 1925)

———, ‘Portrét Rudolfa II z Roku 1600’, Od Pravěku k Dnešku: Sborník Prací z Dějin Ceskoslovenských, 2 (1930), 1–14

Sturmberger, Hans, ‘Die Anfänge des Bruderzwistes in Habsburg’, Mitteilungen des Oberösterreichischen Landesarchivs, 5 (1957), 143–88

Thiessen, Hillard von, ‘Switching Roles in Negotiation: Levels of Diplomatic Communication Between Pope Paul V Borghese (1605–1621) and the Ambassadors of Philip III’, in Paroles de Négociateurs: L’Entretien dans la Pratique Diplomatique de la Fin du Moyen Âge à la Fin du XIXe Siècle, ed. by Stefano Andretta and others (Rome: Publications de l’École Française de Rome, 2010), pp. 151–72

———, and Christian Windler, ‘Nähe in der Ferne: Personale Verflechtung in den Aussenbeziehungen der Frühen Neuzeit’, Zeitschrift für Historische Forschung, 36 (2005), 233–65

Tóth, István G., ‘Old and New Faith in Hungary, Turkish Hungary, and Transylvania’, in A Companion to the Reformation World, ed. by Ronnie Po-chia Hsia (Oxford: Blackwell, 2004), pp. 205–20

Tusor, Péter, and Matteo Sanfilippo, eds, Il Papato e le Chiese Locali (Viterbo: Sette Città, 2014)

Visceglia, Maria A., Roma Papale e Spagna: Diplomatici, Nobili e Religiosi tra Due Corti (Rome: Bulzoni, 2010)

Vocelka, Karl, Die Politische Propaganda Kaiser Rudolfs II. (1576–1612) (Vienna: Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1981)

———, ‘Matthias contra Rudolf: Zur Politischen Propaganda in der Zeit des Bruderzwiste’, Zeitschrift für Historische Forschung, 10 (1983), 341–51

Vorel, Petr, Rísské Snemy a Jejich Vliv na Vyvoj Zemí Koruny Ceské v Letech 1526–1618 (Pardubice: Východočeské Muzeum, 2005)

Wieland, Christian, Fürsten, Freunde, Diplomaten: Die Römisch-Florentinischen Beziehungen unter Paul V. 1605–1621 (Cologne: Böhlau, 2004)

Wilson, Peter H., Heart of Europe: A History of the Holy Roman Empire (Cambridge: The Belknap Press, 2016)


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.

Partnerzy platformy czasopism