Legatio: The Journal for Renaissance and Early Modern Diplomatic Studies https://apcz.umk.pl/Legatio Legatio: The Journal for Renaissance and Early Modern Diplomatic Studies is a new international online open source journal hosted by the Polish Academy of Sciences’ Tadeusz Manteuffel Institute of History, Warsaw, in conjunction with the Premodern Diplomats Network. The journal invites contributions from suitably qualified scholars in two categories: articles and critical editions of primary sources. Any submissions will be subject to a double-blind review before publication. The journal will also publish book and exhibition reviews, conference reports, and notices relevant to the field of study. Instytut Historii im. Tadeusza Manteuffla PAN w Warszawie en-US Legatio: The Journal for Renaissance and Early Modern Diplomatic Studies 2545-1693 The Language of Papal Gift-Giving in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries: An Example of Soft Power? https://apcz.umk.pl/Legatio/article/view/LEGATIO.2020.08 <p>In the seventeenth century, the practice of handing diplomatic gifts was on the rise among European sovereigns. A certain number of treatises intended for ambassadors specifically refer to this practice. These gifts, brought by the nuncios, his ambassadors, were selected, not only by the pope, but also by great figures in the papal court, like cardinals’ nephews or relatives. They were able to recognize which works would be the most appreciated by the Stuart King, the emperor or the kings of France or Spain. The letters sent by the nuncios or the newspapers which tackle events that had occurred in foreign courts constitute precious sources to identify and review such presents. Moreover, papal gifts were dual. The Supreme Pontiff was a religious sovereign and, as such, he offered reliquaries, blessed swaddling clothes and Golden Roses which were holy objects able to sustain Catholicism and maintain the faith. If these types of offerings were conventional, the pope also sent secular objects such as paintings, which represented profane themes, antique statues and small <em>galanteries </em>such as fans, gloves and perfumes, which is more surprising. As a matter of fact, the pope played a political role as a peacemaker between the other great European powers and defenders of the territories over which he had full jurisdiction: the Supreme Pontiff exercised both spiritual and temporal power. This dual nature can be seen in the different objects given. How did presents become instruments of power which served the pope’s interests? How did gift-giving rituals help him persuade the other sovereigns to follow his will and to maintain him as the greatest sovereign in Western Europe?</p> Maëlig Chauvin Copyright (c) 2020 Legatio: The Journal for Renaissance and Early Modern Diplomatic Studies 2020-11-19 2020-11-19 4 167 188 10.12775/LEGATIO.2020.08 Promoting an Artist as an Integral Part of Diplomatic Networking: Chiappino Vitelli and Federico Zuccari at the Court of Queen Elizabeth I https://apcz.umk.pl/Legatio/article/view/LEGATIO.2020.09 <p>In the field of study on relations between Italy and Flanders in the second half of the sixteenth century, the military leader Gian Luigi, better known as Chiappino, Vitelli (1520–75) deserves special attention. Trusted man of Cosimo I de’ Medici and <em>maestro di campo generale </em>of the Spanish armies in Flanders since 1567, he was among the protagonists of the first ten years of the Dutch Revolt.</p><p>Based on the identification of new archival documents, this essay aims both to broaden the sphere of investigation and deepen the understanding of the role of Chiappino in cultural exchanges between Florence, the Habsburg’s and Elizabeth I’s courts. At the same time, it is aimed to draw attention to the political and cultural dynamics in which Chiappino Vitelli’s action towards the English Queen is embedded. From the documents, it clearly emerges how Vitelli took advantage of his role to earn the favour of the sovereign and, in addition to his loyalty, he did not hesitate to offer her the most varied of gifts, such as animals, weapons and artists, such as the painter Federico Zuccari, who reached Flanders in 1574. Zuccari’s sending to the English court should be interpreted as an attempt by the military leader to gain the favour of Elizabeth I when the support of the courts of Florence and Madrid seemed to be lacking, especially after the death of Cosimo de’ Medici and the replacement of the Duke of Alba as governor of Flanders.</p> Francesca Mavilla Copyright (c) 2020 Legatio: The Journal for Renaissance and Early Modern Diplomatic Studies 2020-11-19 2020-11-19 4 189 207 10.12775/LEGATIO.2020.09 Between Temporal and Spiritual Powers: Colonial Diplomacy Associated with the Painting France Bringing Faith to the Huron-Wendats of New France (c. 1666) https://apcz.umk.pl/Legatio/article/view/LEGATIO.2020.10 <p>Preserved in Quebec City, the French canvas entitled <em>France Bringing Faith to the Huron-Wendats of New France</em>, executed around 1666, constitutes a central piece of Canadian art history painted during the French colonial period. Espousing an iconography adapted to the New World, this painting presents an Indigenous figure in its foreground. The man, with a tanned complexion and black hair, whose naked body is dissimulated by a single blue and gold piece of clothing, faces a female character having European features, adorned with noble fabrics and precious jewellery. The scene, set in nature, evokes the grandeur and wilderness of North America. A two-masted French merchant ship floating on the majestic expanse of water reinforces this impression. This painting, obviously, illustrates the Europeans’ arrival on this territory in the seventeenth century, and the encounters between the French and Indigenous peoples. However, the representation is also rich in motifs that are likely to attract attention and curiosity: the <em>mise en abyme </em>(the painting within the painting), the celestial figures, and the coat of arms at the bow of the vessel constitute such examples. In this regard, the research studies of our Canadian art history predecessors – to which we are indebted – have enabled us to, first, retrace the painting’s history and, second, clarify its interpretive elements in relation to the spiritual and contextual dimensions specific to New France, in order to shed light on some of its well-kept secrets.</p> Pierre-Olivier Ouellet Copyright (c) 2020 Legatio: The Journal for Renaissance and Early Modern Diplomatic Studies 2020-11-19 2020-11-19 4 209 235 10.12775/LEGATIO.2020.10 Foreword https://apcz.umk.pl/Legatio/article/view/32086 Nathalie Nathalie Rivère de Carles Copyright (c) 2020 Legatio: The Journal for Renaissance and Early Modern Diplomatic Studies 2020-11-19 2020-11-19 4 5 13 10.12775/32086 Estelle Paranque, ELIZABETH I THROUGH VALOIS EYES: POWER, REPRESENTATION, AND DIPLOMACY IN THE REIGN OF THE QUEEN, 1558–1588 https://apcz.umk.pl/Legatio/article/view/32097 François Daliot Copyright (c) 2020 Legatio: The Journal for Renaissance and Early Modern Diplomatic Studies 2020-11-19 2020-11-19 4 237 238 10.12775/32097 SUBSIDIES, DIPLOMACY, AND STATE FORMATION IN EUROPE, 1494–1789: ECONOMIES OF ALLEGIANCE, ed. by Svante Norrhem and Erik Thomson https://apcz.umk.pl/Legatio/article/view/32098 Henri Hannula Copyright (c) 2020 Legatio: The Journal for Renaissance and Early Modern Diplomatic Studies 2020-11-19 2020-11-19 4 239 241 10.12775/32098 Symbolic Communication in Habsburg-Ottoman Diplomatic Relations. The Grand Embassy of Johann Rudolf Schmid zum Schwarzenhorn (1650–51) https://apcz.umk.pl/Legatio/article/view/LEGATIO.2020.05 <p>In seventeenth-century Habsburg-Ottoman diplomatic relations, grand embassies played a crucial role in preserving the peace between the two empires. In the last decade, they have gained some popularity as a subject of historical research. The grand embassy of Johann Rudolf Schmid zum Schwarzenhorn (1650–51), however, has thus far received only little attention. This paper aims to analyse symbolic communication between Habsburgs and Ottomans during Schmid’s mission by examining its three main events: the border exchange ceremony, the entry into Constantinople, and the audience with the sultan.</p> Christoph Würflinger Copyright (c) 2020 Legatio: The Journal for Renaissance and Early Modern Diplomatic Studies 2020-11-19 2020-11-19 4 95 122 10.12775/LEGATIO.2020.05 Grand Vizieral Reception Ceremonies of European Ambassadors in the First Half of the Seventeenth Century https://apcz.umk.pl/Legatio/article/view/LEGATIO.2020.06 <p>Grand viziers acted as the utmost important figure in the Ottoman bureaucratic administration throughout the early modern era. Conducting relations with foreign countries and, hence, conforming to the rules of an established diplomatic practice in the process were among their duties. The present study, therefore, aims at highlighting the underrated procedure of grand vizierial audiences through selected cases from the first half of the seventeenth century. In this respect, dispatches and final reports of certain representatives of major European monarchs in Istanbul are brought to light along with complementary data from Ottoman fiscal records of the time. The reception of foreign diplomats by the grand vizier – which presents its own intricacies and follows its own set of rules – is hence laid under scrutiny to understand how a physical language of diplomacy was created. Accordingly, welcoming receptions by the grand viziers will be studied instead of focusing on the negotiation audiences between the grand viziers and the incoming embassies. Comparisons with the imperial audiences will also be useful both in underlining the differentiation of this physical language from the one employed in the audiences with the sultan and also in evaluating the diplomatic function of the grand vizier within the framework of Ottoman foreign relations. In this respect, the first receptions by the grand vizier were intended to welcome foreign embassies and played a crucial part in their diplomatic mission since the date for the sultanic audience was arranged herein. Moreover, exchange of gifts between the grand vizier and the emissaries, serving of refreshments and avoidance of any politically consequential issue during the meeting were the main elements of the grand vizierial receptions.</p> Mahmut Halef Cevrioğlu Copyright (c) 2020 Legatio: The Journal for Renaissance and Early Modern Diplomatic Studies 2020-11-19 2020-11-19 4 123 141 10.12775/LEGATIO.2020.06 Por Ser Hombre Platico: Francisco Gasparo and the 1568 Spanish Negotiations with the Ottoman Governors of Algiers https://apcz.umk.pl/Legatio/article/view/LEGATIO.2020.07 <p>In the spring of 1568, Uluç Ali Pasha, a Christian convert to Islam born in the Spanish viceroyalty of Naples, became the new Ottoman governor of Algiers. Subsequently, Phillip II of Spain tried to establish a dialogue with him. To conquer the city without having to resort to a military expedition, the king of Spain sent Francesco Gasparo, a Corsican merchant, to Algiers. This article aims to shed light on the Spanish diplomatic practice used in the dialogue with the Ottoman Governors of Algiers during the sixteenth century. To do so, we have had to move away from the traditional focus on the study of agreements and opt for a more holistic approach of the diplomatic event. Diplomacy is no longer seen as a simple political relationship capable of establishing an agreement between two parties during a specific time, but as a permanent practice defined by a complex structure. Thus, the article focuses on the agents and practices used during the Spanish negotiation with Uluç Ali to assess the tenets underpinning this type of diplomatic interaction. Gasparo’s mission enables us to reflect on the structure of Spanish diplomacy in the Early Modern Mediterranean. The Corsican merchant’s experience in Algiers reveals the presence of a specific dialogic pattern between the Iberian and Maghreb coasts and how it was consolidated during the sixteenth century. This article endeavours thus to analyse the characteristic elements and principles of what seems to be a specific diplomatic model.</p> Francesco Caprioli Copyright (c) 2020 Legatio: The Journal for Renaissance and Early Modern Diplomatic Studies 2020-11-19 2020-11-19 4 143 166 10.12775/LEGATIO.2020.07 The Language of Incognito in Late Seventeenth-Century Diplomacy https://apcz.umk.pl/Legatio/article/view/LEGATIO.2020.01 <em>Incognito </em>was, by the end of the seventeenth century, a well-established and widely used practice in the European courts. In addition to its various convenience and financial uses, incognito could also have specifically diplomatic uses, acting as a unique and highly useful tool in negotiations, and it is this particular aspect of incognito this article aims to explore. Firstly, I will point out that, by suspending the standard rules governing social interactions, diplomatic incognito was first and foremost a way to free language and discourses from ceremonial restraints, which could very well be the sole and simple aim. The use of incognito did more however than simply facilitate diplomatic communications: it initiated, aside from the words spoken by the negotiators, another kind of dialogue, made of gestures and symbols, which I will endeavour to study. The last part of this article will be dedicated to the way this unique language made available using incognito could be used by early modern European states and their representatives to alter the balance of power and to level the diplomatic field in their favour. Emmanuel Lemée Copyright (c) 2020 Legatio: The Journal for Renaissance and Early Modern Diplomatic Studies 2020-11-19 2020-11-19 4 15 36 10.12775/LEGATIO.2020.01 Displaying the Prince’s Identity: Textile Accessories and Fineries in Seventeenth-Century Diplomatic Gift-Giving https://apcz.umk.pl/Legatio/article/view/LEGATIO.2020.02 <p>The language of gifts is plural and part of age-old strategies of soft power, i.e. the indirect representation of and negotiation between sovereigns. Studies by Christian Windler, Harriet Rudolph and Gregor M. Metzig underlined the significance of material culture in diplomacy and its importance for starting economic and cultural exchanges and transfers. This article offers to observe both the official and the parallel gift-exchanges in various diplomatic contexts. It analyses the Spanish mission of the Duke of Grammont in 1659 and the importance given to gloves, lozenges and perfumes before showing how gift-giving is in turn gender-neutral and genderoriented with a close analysis of gifts given outside official diplomatic events and aimed particularly at women. A closer study of the material environment of the widely discussed 1623 negotiations of the Spanish Match between Spain and England will show what the material language meant in the case of a doomed negotiation. The structure of exchanges may not change a lot, but the meaning of a gift and how it was received varies according to the territory, time, the stakeholders’ identity, and the political situation. This means that the study of material details – textiles, cuts, patterns, decorations, qualities, values – or the process of exchanges alone does not suffice to understand the meaning(s) princes gave such gifts. They need to be contextualised geographically, historically, economically, sociologically, and strategically. Such need is made particularly in the final case studies of the article dedicated to the role of portrait medallions and finery in seventeenth and eighteenth centuries French and Spanish diplomacy.</p> Chloé Rivière Copyright (c) 2020 Legatio: The Journal for Renaissance and Early Modern Diplomatic Studies 2020-11-19 2020-11-19 4 37 58 10.12775/LEGATIO.2020.02 The Education of an Ambassador: The Marquis d’Effiat in England (1624–25) https://apcz.umk.pl/Legatio/article/view/LEGATIO.2020.03 <p>When he left France in July 1624 to go to England, on young Louis XIII’s order, Antoine Coiffier de Ruzé, Marquis d’Effiat, began his very first diplomatic trip. Despite his functions, the Marquis d’Effiat never accomplished any diplomatic mission of any kind. However, a few years earlier, he negotiated the marriage of Honoré d’Albert, a Duke of Luynes’s brother. Thus, in 1624, he was entrusted with the delicate mission to bring England and France together through the marriage of Henrietta-Maria of France, the King’s sister, to Charles, Prince of Wales.</p><p>This is an extraordinary embassy and the dispatches of the ambassador have been preserved as well as the replies of Louis XIII and the Secretary of State, Antoine de Lomenie. This allows us to observe an evolution both in Effiat’s account of his actions and the content of the points negotiated, and the way his work was staged. Despite his age, the Marquis d’Effiat was new to diplomacy. He was familiar with the royal French court but his ignorance about England and diplomatic practices raises questions about the King’s choice of sending him across the Channel. This ignorance of diplomatic customs includes negotiation strategies, but also the body language that an ambassador must adopt to serve the interests of his master and extensively described in 16th century treatises on ambassadors. This article aims to compare the ambassador’s discourse with the diplomatic accomplishment. The interest of this embassy, besides its political and religious stakes, is that it makes it possible to observe its fears of error and procrastination through the correspondence of the marquis.</p> Amélie Balayre Copyright (c) 2020 Legatio: The Journal for Renaissance and Early Modern Diplomatic Studies 2020-11-19 2020-11-19 4 59 74 10.12775/LEGATIO.2020.03 Imitation Games. Some Notes on the Envoys Sent by Borso d’Este to Uthman, Ruler of Tunis https://apcz.umk.pl/Legatio/article/view/LEGATIO.2020.04 <p>In April 1464 Borso d’Este, Lord of Ferrara, sent two of his servants to Tunis in order to purchase prized horses, giving precise instructions for offering his regards and presenting his gifts to the ruler of Tunis. The letter that the Marquis entrusts to his two servants is a mine of information, because Borso leaves nothing to chance. His instructions cover every aspect of the ambassadorial visit: when to show the gifts, how and in what order to show them, the speech to be given. Many of the instructions given to ambassadors by their governments are yet to be investigated: how much room for manoeuvre did they leave in achieving the objectives of the mission, for example? In the case of the Marquis of Ferrara, Borso intends to exhibit his kingship through the staging of the presentation of his gifts, and through the posture, the gestures and the words of his representatives. The analysis of his letter can offer an interpretative guide for examining the appearances and public celebrations organized by Borso during his rule, which took place in an age of great experimentation.</p> Beatrice Saletti Copyright (c) 2020 Legatio: The Journal for Renaissance and Early Modern Diplomatic Studies 2020-11-19 2020-11-19 4 75 93 10.12775/LEGATIO.2020.04