Legatio: The Journal for Renaissance and Early Modern Diplomatic Studies https://apcz.umk.pl/Legatio <p>Legatio is a new international online open source journal hosted by the Polish Academy of Sciences’ Tadeusz Manteuffel Institute of History, Warsaw, in conjunction with the Premodern Diplomats Network. The journal invites contributions from suitably qualified scholars in two categories: articles and critical editions of primary sources. Any submissions will be subject to a double-blind review before publication. The journal will also publish book and exhibition reviews, conference reports, and notices relevant to the field of study.</p> Instytut Historii im. Tadeusza Manteuffla PAN w Warszawie en-US Legatio: The Journal for Renaissance and Early Modern Diplomatic Studies 2545-1693 Administering Empire. Business Diplomacy in Early Modern Sweden: The Cases of Abraham Cabiljau and the Gothenburg Company https://apcz.umk.pl/Legatio/article/view/36817 <p>The article illustrates the importance of business diplomacy practised by free agents, who navigated and negotiated between northern European empires for widespread commercial, legal and administrative developments. Abraham Cabiljau’s career is an example from the early modern Swedish empire, which stands on the threshold of a new era. In the Swedish empire, Cabiljau was involved in several different sectors, from military recruitment to the development of state accounting and administration of international trade. He represents the Swedish empire’s vast economic relationships with international merchant networks operating in a broad spectrum of military and commercial arenas. The Swedish empire was economically dependent on the financial resources of the merchants in Amsterdam, and economic prosperity was not the sole contribution of these merchants. The education, knowledge and connections provided by Cabiljau greatly enhanced the administration and organisation of Sweden’s international trade by importing a new legal mindset and organisational culture. In return, northern mining resources and Baltic commerce were alluring for Dutch merchants. We argue that the modelling of international organisations was an essential part of Swedish economic development. However, the first Swedish trading companies remained an experimental attempt to transplant the Dutch East India Company (VOC) model to Sweden. Individuals like Cabiljau represent key actors who ignited, taught and promoted commercial law development in Sweden, on which international commerce was later built upon, with long-lasting impacts.</p> Kaarle Wirta Katja Tikka Jaakko Björklund Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2022-01-01 2022-01-01 5 21 51 10.12775/LEGATIO.2021.02 Trade Must Go On. The Tar Trade, Nordic Rivalry, and Cross-Imperial Commercial Diplomacy, 1675–79 https://apcz.umk.pl/Legatio/article/view/36820 <p>The Scanian War fought between Sweden and Denmark (1675–1679) is an example of an armed conflict, which uncovers the clash between the commercial and political interests. This article analyses the dispute between the political allies, the Danish Crown and the Dutch States General considering the trade with Sweden. The Danish naval officials had captured and confiscated the cargoes of seven Dutch tar vessels, heading to Amsterdam from present-day Finland in 1677, which resulted in a major political dispute between Denmark and the Dutch Republic. By drawing upon the methodology of new diplomatic history, the article analyses the negotiations between the diplomatic actors involved in the disputes relating to the confiscation of the ships, all of whom represented the various powers involved in the Baltic export trade.</p> Kaarle Wirta Henri Hannula Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2022-01-01 2022-01-01 5 53 76 10.12775/LEGATIO.2021.03 Building on Foreign Expertise. Military and Agricultural Experts and the Eastward Expansion of Sixteenth- and Seventeenth-Century Sweden https://apcz.umk.pl/Legatio/article/view/36834 <p>In the second half of the sixteenth and the first half of the seventeenth century, the Kingdom of Sweden was almost constantly engaged in armed conflicts with neighbouring kingdoms. Both offensive and defensive wars were characteristic of the Swedish foreign policy from 1550s to 1650s. The same period witnessed the emergence of the Swedish Empire because, due to these conflicts, Sweden was able to acquire new domains in the Baltic region and to expand its territories in both east and south. These geopolitical realities pushed all Vasa kings into multiple projects aiming to rationalise Sweden’s army and its military strategy as well as to develop the acquired areas in various ways. Our article presents two development project examples of this emerging empire (1) Scottish officers (the Swedish Crown acknowledged the military expertise of Scottish troops as well as their officers and tried to harness this experience for Sweden), and (2) the planned modernisation of Ingria through German and Dutch colonisation and agricultural development. The article examines the needs and expertise expectations that the Swedish Crown directed towards these foreign groups. The emergence of Sweden as a European empire did not occur in a geopolitical vacuum. International contacts and the influx of European expertise into Sweden were important factors in the building of the Swedish dominion in the Baltic region. By focusing on these foreign expert groups, one operating in the military world and the other in the agricultural sphere, this article illustrates the functions and roles that the Swedish Crown expected foreign experts to have on the eastern frontier of early modern Sweden.</p> Sebastian Schiavone Otso Kortekangas Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2022-01-01 2022-01-01 5 77 103 10.12775/LEGATIO.2021.04 An Instrumental Connection. Economic Diplomacy, International Arms Trade and Overseas Aspirations between Portugal and Sweden, 1640–80 https://apcz.umk.pl/Legatio/article/view/36835 <p>This paper offers an Iberian perspective on Sweden’s ‘Age of Greatness’ by looking at the intersection of international politics and trade involving Portugal and Sweden after Portugal regained its independence from Spain at the end of 1640. Sweden’s exports of timber, naval stores, iron, copper, and weapons to Braganza Portugal are seen in the context of the Portuguese wars for overseas trade and colonial settlement against the Dutch Republic and the struggle for autonomy against Spain in its home turf. By revisiting the accounts of diplomatic actors, this contribution will discuss how Portugal turned to Sweden for diplomatic recognition and new consumption markets and carriers for its export sector. It will also be shown how Sweden stood to gain by adding a new customer to its military export sector and by tapping into Portugal’s colonial goods and salt, while at the same time it entertained the prospect of using the Portuguese offshoots in West Africa and the East Indies to further its ambitions in overseas trade.</p> Edgar Pereira Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2022-01-01 2022-01-01 5 105 132 10.12775/LEGATIO.2021.05 Knowledge and Agency. The Case of Claes Rålamb and the Swedish Embassy to Istanbul, 1657–58 https://apcz.umk.pl/Legatio/article/view/36836 <p>This article explores the interplay between knowledge and agency in early modern diplomacy. Focusing on the power dynamics of early modern empire through a case study of a Swedish embassy to the Ottoman Empire in 1657–58, the article shows how agency and knowledge interlinked throughout the diplomatic mission. At the centre of the study is Claes Rålamb, a Swedish nobleman who was sent to Istanbul to secure an alliance between Sweden and the Ottoman vassal state Transylvania. Rålamb’s journey to, and stay in, Istanbul was framed by global political developments, yet, it was also directly influenced by local customs and personal connections. In particular, Rålamb’s ability to act as an agent of the Swedish Empire was shaped by the difficulties of attaining reliable information. Moreover, the framework within which he was able to act changed between different stages of the journey. This makes the intersection between knowledge and agency a fruitful focal point for examining early modern empire, going beyond traditional national frameworks and categories of actors. Rålamb was sent out as an envoy of the Swedish empire, yet the meaning of that position changed constantly.</p> Charlotta Forss Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2022-01-01 2022-01-01 5 133 158 10.12775/LEGATIO.2021.06 BEYOND AMBASSADORS. CONSULS, MISSIONARIES, AND SPIES IN PREMODERN DIPLOMACY, ed. by Maurits Ebben and Louis Sicking https://apcz.umk.pl/Legatio/article/view/36837 Guido van Meersbergen Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2022-01-01 2022-01-01 5 159 161 ESPERIENZA E DIPLOMAZIA. SAPERI, PRATICHE CULTURALI E AZIONE DIPLOMATICA NELL’ETÀ MODERNA (SECC. XV–XVIII) / EXPÉRIENCE ET DIPLOMATIE. SAVOIRS, PRATIQUES CULTURELLES ET ACTION DIPLOMATIQUE À L’ÉPOQUE MODERNE (XVe–XVIIIe S.), ed. by Stefano Andretta, Lucie https://apcz.umk.pl/Legatio/article/view/36839 Pierre Nevejans Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2022-01-01 2022-01-01 5 162 164 Paweł Duda, KRZYŻ I KARABELA. POLITYKA ZAGRANICZNA RZECZYPOSPOLITEJ OBOJGA NARODÓW W OCENIE DYPLOMACJI PAPIESKIEJ W LATACH 1623–1635 https://apcz.umk.pl/Legatio/article/view/36840 Anna Kalinowska Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2022-01-01 2022-01-01 5 165 169 Aleksandra Barwicka-Makula, OD WROGOŚCI DO PRZYJAŹNI. HABSBURGOWIE AUSTRIACCY WOBEC POLSKI W LATACH 1587–1592 https://apcz.umk.pl/Legatio/article/view/36841 Magdalena Jakubowska Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2022-01-01 2022-01-01 5 170 171 Diplomacy of an Empire. Alternative Agents in Seventeenth-Century Sweden https://apcz.umk.pl/Legatio/article/view/36815 Kaarle Wirta Henri Hannula Otso Kortekangas Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2022-01-01 2022-01-01 5 5 19 10.12775/LEGATIO.2021.01