INNOVATIVENESS OF THE POLISH ECONOMY IN THE CONTEXT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Wiesława Ziółkowska

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12775/CJFA.2018.016

Abstract


This paper attempts to evaluate the progress of Polish economy’s innovativeness in the years 2010–2016 against the backdrop of other EU member states. While this analysis is not exhaustive, it allows to draw the opinion that the pace of the convergence process is not fast enough. Poland, despite the growth of the summary innovation index, in 2016 was ranked only as number twenty-five among so called moderate innovators. On the other hand, Lithuania, Latvia, Malta next to the Netherlands and the UK formed a group whose level of innovativeness increased the fastest. Improvement of the innovativeness of the economy requires an increase in investments, effective partnership between enterprises and academic centers, a high level of education, and scientific research. It also turns out that R&D expenditure is too low as well. While this figure measured as spending in euro per capita improved in Poland from EUR 68.60 in 2010 to EUR 108.30 in 2016, which represents over a 50% growth, it was still 5.5 times lower than the average for the European Union, which stood at EUR 592.30. Total R&D outlays in 2016 in all sectors made up a mere 0.97% of the GDP, while the EU average was 2.03% of the GDP. The return rate on the outlays measured as an improvement of the summary innovation index, on the assumption that in 2010 the UE=100, is relatively low. The growth of the summary innovation index in 2016, measured against the EU average in 2010 treated as 100, was the same as the average for the EU and equaled 2 points.


Keywords


innovations; Summary Innovation Index; Global Innovation Index; R&D expenditure; Pearson’s and Spearman’s correlation coefficients

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References


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