Structural Heterogeneity Between EU 15 and 12 New EU Members – the Obstacle to Lisbon Strategy Implementation?

Magdalena Olczyk

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12775/EQUIL.2014.023

Abstract


The aim of this article is to identify diversity between the EU-15 and the New Members in their implementation of the Lisbon Strategy in the period 2000-2010. By analyzing a set of structural indicators, we aim to fill a gap in the literature: the lack of publications providing complex evaluation of the implementation of the Lisbon Strategy using measurable indicators. Given their suitability for international comparisons, we use two taxonomic methods: Ward’s cluster analysis and the synthetic variable method proposed by Hellwig.

The results of our analyses confirm the hypothesis of a large gap between the EU-15 countries and the 12 New Members in the key areas of the Lisbon Strategy. According to rankings given by our taxonomic analyses, a high level of the indicators selected is confirmed only for the EU-15 countries and only three New Members belong to a group presenting the average level of these indicators. This study demonstrates a need for a significant intensification of the EU cohesion policy, which is one of the main tools for achieving the Lisbon Strategy goals.


Keywords


Lisbon targets; European Union; multivariate analysis; structural indicators

Full Text:

PDF

References


Amstrong, K., Begg, I., & Zeitlin, J. (2008), JCMS Symposium: EU governance after Lisbon. Journal of Common Market Studies, 46(2).

Arpaia, A., Hobza, A., & Mourre, G. (2007). Quantitative assessment of structuralreforms: Modelling the Lisbon strategy. European Economy – Economic Papers, No. 282.

Balcerzak, A. ( 2011). Pozycja Polski w kontekście planu Europa 2020. Analiza z wykorzystaniem metod porządkowania liniowego. Studia Ekonomiczne / Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny w Katowicach, 81.

Balcerzak, A., Górecka, D., & Rogalska, E. (2008). Taksonometryczna analiza realizacji strategii lizbońskiej w latach 2001-2005. Wiadomości Statystyczne, 6.

Brauers, W., Balezentis, T. & Balezentis, A. (2011). Implementation of the Strategy Europe 2020 by the multi-objective evaluation method Multimoora. E&M Ekonomie a Management, 14.

Brauers, W., Balezentis, A. & Balezentis T. (2012). European Union Members States preparing for Europe 2020. An application of the Multimoora method. Technological and Economic Development of Economy, 18, http://dx.doi.org /10.3846/20294913.2012.734692.

Blanke, J. & Kinnock, S. (2010). The Lisbon Review 2010: Towards a More Competitive Europe?. Retrieved from http://www.weforum.org/reports/lisbonrev iew-2010 (01.09.2013).

Barbier, J-C. (2010). Strategie de Lisbonne: Les promesses sociales non tenues. CES Working papers, No18.

Barbier, J-C. (2012). Tracing the fate of EU “social policy”. Changes in political discourse from “Lisbon Strategy” to “Europe 2020”. International Labour Review, 151.

Barrel, R., & Kirby, S. (2007). Notes on the Lisbon process – An analysis of the impacts of reaching the Lisbon targets for skills, R&D and the administrative burden in the European Union. Industrial Policy and Economic Reform Papers, 7.

Bertolini, P., & Pagliacci, F. (2010). Lisbon strategy and EU countries’ performance: social inclusion and sustainability. Working Paper of Department of Economics of University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, No 0648.

Borsi, B. (2009). What the future of the Lisbon Strategy. Acta Oeconomica, 58.

Cantillon, B. (2010). Disambiguating Lisbon. Growth, Employment and Social Inclusion in the Investment state, CSB Working Paper, No 10/07.

Codogno, L., Odinet, G., & Padrini, F. (2009). The Use of Targets In the Lisbon Strategy. Rivista Di Politica

Economica, 99(1-3).

Destefanis, S. & Mastromatteo, G. (2012). Assessing the reassessment: A panel analysis of the Lisbon Strategy. Economics Letters, 11(2).

Ederer, S., Janger, J., Kaniovski, S., Kletzan-Slamanig, D., Berger, J., Fortin, I., Hofer, H., Paterson I., Skriner, E., Schonpflug, K., Schuh U., & Schwarzbauer W. (2010), The Lisbon Strategy 2005-2010 and Estimating Expected Effects from Reaching the EU 2020 Goals. WIFO, Wien.

European Commission (2004). Delivering Lisbon. Reforms for the enlarged Union.European Commission COM 29. Retrieved from http://www.ihep.org/a ssets/files/gcfp-files/Deliveriing_Lisbon_Reforms_Enlarged_Unio n_2004.pdf (16.07.2013).

European Commission (2005). Working Together For Growth and Jobs: A New Start for the Lisbon Strategy, European Commission COM, Retrieved from http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/com/2005/com2005_0024en 01.pdf (16.07.2013).

European Commission (2007). Proposal for a Community Lisbon Programme 2008-2010. COM 804 final. Retrieved from http://eurlex.europa.e u/LexUr iServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2007:0804:FIN:EN:PDF (16.07.2013).

European Commission (2010a). Europe 2020. A Strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. 2, COM(2010). Retrieved from http://eur- lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2010:2020:FIN:EN:PDF (16.07.2013).

European Commission (2010b). Lisbon Strategy: Evaluation Document. SEC 114 final. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/europe2020/pdf/lisbon_strategy _evaluation_en.pdf (16.07.2013).

European Commission (2010c). An Agenda for new skills and jobs: A European contribution towards full employment, Strasbourg, COM(2010) 682 final, Retrieved from http://eurlex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2 010:0682:FIN:en:PDF (16.07.2013).

European Commission (2010d). Macro structural bottlenecks to growth in EU Member States, Brussels, COM(2010), Occasional papers, nr 65, Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/economy_finance/publications/occasional_paper/2010/pdf/ocp65_en.pdf (16.07.2013).

European Commission (2011). Tackling early school leaving: A key contribution to the Europe 2020, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of Regions, Brussels, COM(2011) 18 final. Retrieved from http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2011:0018:FI N:EN:PDF (16.07.2013).

European Parliament (2000). Lisbon European Council 23 and 24 March Presidency Conclusion. Retrieved from http://www.europarl.europa.eu/summi ts/lis1_en.htm (06.07.2013).

European Parliament (2010). The Lisbon Strategy 2000-2010. An analysis and evaluation of the methods used and results achieved. Report of Directorate General for Internal Policies: Employment and Social Affairs. Retrieved from http://www.europarl.europa.eu/document/activities/cont/201107/20110718ATT24270/20110718ATT24270EN.pdf (16.07.2013).

Eurostat (2012). Online Statistics database, Retrieved from http://epp.eurosta t.ec.europa.eu.

Everitt, B. S. (1993). Cluster Analysis. London: Edward Arnold Publishing. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470977811.

Everitt, B. S., Landau S., & Leese M. (2001). Cluster Analysis. London: Edward Arnold Publishing.

Fischer, S., Gran, S., Hacker, B., Jakobi, A. P., Petzold, S., Pusch, T., & Steinberg P. (2010). Europe 2020 – Proposals For the Post-Lisbon Strategy, Frankfurt: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung.

Gordon, A. D. (1999). Classification. Boca Raton: Chapman and Hall. http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/9789812832153_0003.

Grabiński, T. (1992). Metody taksonometrii. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Akademii Ekonomicznej w Krakowie.

Grabiński, T., Wydmus, S., & Zeliaś, A. (1993). Metody prognozowania rozwoju społeczno-gospodarczego. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Akademii Ekonomicznej w Krakowie.

Gros, D. (2012). Perspectives on the Lisbon Strategy: How to increase European competitiveness in Europe after enlargement. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hellwig, Z. (1968). Zastosowanie metody taksonomicznej do typologicznego podziału krajów ze względu na poziom rozwoju oraz zasady i strukturę wykwalifikowanych kadr. Przegląd Statystyczny, 4.

Johansson, B., Karlsson, Ch., Backman, M., & Juusola, P. (2007). The Lisbon Agenda from 2000 to 2010, CESIS – Electronic Working Paper Series, No. 106.

Johnson, R. A. & Wichern, D.W. (2007). Applied Multivariate Statistical Analysis. Pearson Publishing.

Kaufman, L. & Rousseeuw, P. J. (1990). Finding Groups in Data. New York: John Wiley & Sons. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470316801.

Kedaitiene, A., & Kedaitis, V. (2009). The Lisbon Strategy and Economic Growth. Ekonomika Ir Vadyba: Aktualijos Ir Perspektyvos, 2(15).

Koczor, M., & Tokarski, P. (2011). From Lisbon to Europe 2020, Lisbon Strategy Implementation in 2010: Assessments and Prospects, Warsaw: The Polish Institute for International Affairs.

Krings, T., Marlier, E., & Natali, D. (2012). Europe 2020. Towards a more social EU?. Journal of European Social Policy, 22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/09589 28712440376.

Lenain, P., Bützow Mogensen, U., & Royela-Mora V. (2005). Strategia Lizbońska na półmetku: oczekiwania a rzeczywistość. Warszawa: CASE.

Nowak, E. (1990). Metody taksonomiczne w klasyfikacji obiektów społeczno- gospodarczych. Warszawa: PWN.

Moniz, A. (2011). From the Lisbon strategy to EU2020: illusion or progress for European economies? In: B.-J. Krings (Ed.). Brain Drain or Brain Gain? Changes of Work in Knowledge-based Societies. Berlin: Sigma Verlag.

Mundschenk, S. (2006). Competitiveness and Growth in Europe Lessons and Policy Implications for the Lisbon Strategy. Edward Elgar Publishing.

Panitsidou, E., Griva, E., & Chostelidou D. (2012). European Union Policies on Lifelong Learning: In-between Competitiveness Enhancement and Social Stability Reinforcement. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 46.

Papadimitriou, D., & Copeland, P. (2012). The EU’s Lisbon Strategy. Evaluating Success, Understanding Failure. Palgrave Macmillan.

Radło, M. J. (2006). Instruments to support structural reforms in Poland. In: M. Weresa Ed. Poland Competitiveness Report 2006, Warsaw: Warsaw School of Economics Publishing.

Rodrigues, M. J. (2009). Europe, Globalization And The Lisbon Agenda, Edward Elgard Publishing. http://dx.doi.org/10.4337/9781848446083.

Sojka, M. (2007). The Czech economy and the challenge of The Lisbon Strategy. Ekonoicky casopis, 55.

Soriano, F., & Mulatero, F. (2010). Knowledge Policy in the EU: From Lisbon Strategy to Europe 2020. Journal of the Knowledge Economy, 4.

Strahl, D. (1978). Propozycja konstrukcji miary syntetycznej. Przegląd Statystyczny, 2.

Tausch, A. (2009). Titanic 2010? The European Union and its failed Lisbon Strategy. Nova Science Publishers.

Teichman, E., & Brocka-Palacz, B. (2009). Strategia Lizbońska z perspektywy wybranych krajów i regionów. Warszawa: Oficyna Wydawnicza SGH.

Tilford, S., & Whyte, P. (2009). The Lisbon Scorecard IX. How to emerge from the wreckage, Centre for European Reform Publishing.

Treidler, O. (2011). Evaluating the Lisbon Strategy, Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Beiträge des Lehrstuhls für Volkswirtschaftslehre, insbes. Wirtschaftsordnung und Sozialpolitik, 115.

Ward, J. H., Jr. (1963). Hierarchical Grouping to Optimize an Objective Function. Journal of the American

Statistical Association, 48. http://dx.doi.org/10.230 7/2282967.

Vilpišauskas, R. (2012). Does Europe 2020 represent learning from the Lisbon strategy? In Europe and National Economic Transformation: the EU after the Lisbon Decade. Palgrave Macmillan.

Zeliaś, A. (2002). Taksonomiczna analiza przestrzennego zróżnicowania poziomu życia w Polsce w ujęciu dynamicznym. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Akademii Ekonomicznej w Krakowie.

Zgajewski, T., & Hajjar, K. (2005), The Lisbon Strategy: Which failure? Whose failure? And why?. Brussels Academia Press.








p-ISSN 1689-765X
e-ISSN 2353-3293

Partnerzy platformy czasopism