MIGRATION CRISIS IN 2013 AS AN EXAMPLE OF THE LACK OF POLITICAL COHESION OF EU COUNTRIES

Adrianna Czarnecka

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12775/TIS.2018.012

Abstract


The Arab Spring of Nations affected not only the Middle East countries. Frustrated citizens decided to flee their own country. Most started heading for Europe. Having done so, they did not expect any predicament while crossing a dangerous road. The migration crisis overwhelmed EU countries by exposing their lack of coherent foreign and asylum policies. Due to the lack of unity and crisis management procedures, the neighbouring states were exposed to great danger. The lack of a rapid joint decision led to the outbreak of one of the largest humanitarian crises. The following text aims to prove the thesis that the migration crisis was an example of the lack of a common EU policy towards the above-mentioned problem.

Keywords


migration crisis; Arabs Spring; Middle East; Human Right; International Security

Full Text:

PDF

References


Al Jazeera. (2016). Ten countries host half of world's refugees: report News. Retrieved January 10, 2019, from https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2016/10/ten-countries-host-world-refugees-report-161004042014076.html

Barigazzi, J. (2015, September 25). EU migration chief: Forget the 'political cost. Politico. Retrieved January 10, 2019, from https://www.politico.eu/article/migration-news-political-europe-cost/

BBC News. (2016, March 3). Why is EU struggling with migrants and asylum? Retrieved January 10, 2019, from https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-24583286

Council on Foreign Relations. (2015). Europe's Migration Crisis. Retrieved January 10, 2019, from https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/europes-migration-crisis

European Commission. (2015). Immigration in the EU. Retrieved January 10, 2019, from https://ec.europa.eu/antitrafficking/sites/antitrafficking/files/communication_on_the_european_agenda_on_migration_en.pdf

European Commission. (2016). Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council.

European Commission. (2016). EU-Turkey Agreement: Questions and Answers. Retrieved January 10, 2019, from http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_MEMO-16-963_pl.htm

European Parliamentary Research Servic. (2016). EU floats new asylum system, seeks to stop 'asylum shopping. Retrieved January 10, 2019, from http://www.europarl.europa.eu/news/en/headlines/society/20170627STO78418/improving-the-common-european-asylum-system

European Parliamentary Research Servic. (2016). EU legal framework on asylum and irregular immigration 'on arrival. Retrieved January 10, 2019, from http://www.europarl.europa.eu/thinktank/en/document.html?reference=EPRS_BRI(2015)551333

EUROSTAT. (2019). Asylum quarterly report. Retrieved January 10, 2019, from https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/pdfscache/13562.pdf

Frontex. (2015). Annual Risk Analysis. Retrieved January 10, 2019, from https://frontex.europa.eu/assets/Publications/Risk_Analysis/Annual_Risk_Analysis_2015.pdf

Geddes, A. (2016). The Politics of Migration and Immigration in Europe (2nd ed.). London: SAGE Pulication Ltd.

Human Rights Watch. (2015). Europe’s Refugee Crisis, An Agenda for Action. Retrieved January 10, 2019, from https://www.hrw.org/report/2015/11/16/europes-refugee-crisis/agenda-action

Krasimirov, A. (2015). Bulgaria to extend fence at Turkish border to bar refugee influx. Reuters. Retrieved January 10, 2019, from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-bulgaria-turkey-fence/bulgaria-to-extend-fence-at-turkish-border-to-bar-refugee-influx-idUSKBN0KN1JG20150114

Neely, B. (2015). Migrants Crisis: Refugees Attempt to Reach Greek Island of Lesbos. NBC News. Retrieved January 10, 2019, from https://www.nbcnews.com/storyline/europes-border-crisis/migrants-crisis-refugees-attempt-reach-greek-island-lesbos-n409011

Reuters. (2015, September 4). Migrants cling to Hungarian train west, lawmakers debate sealing border. Retrieved January 10, 2019, from http://www.therakyatpost.com/world/2015/09/04/migrants-cling-to-hungarian-train-west-lawmakers-debate-sealing-border/

Szpala, M., & Jaroszewicz, M. (2015). Macedonia a kryzys migracyjny. Retrieved January 10, 2019, from https://www.osw.waw.pl/pl/publikacje/analizy/2015-08-26/macedonia-a-kryzys-migracyjny

The Australian. (2016). Turkey’s President Erdogan threatens to blow up EU migrant deal. Retrieved January 10, 2019, from https://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/world/turkeys-president-erdogan-threatens-to-blow-up-eu-migrant-deal/news-story/e8a4dcb68b68690958772c49177ceeb4

UNHCR. (2015). Chief issues key guidelines for dealing with Europe's refugee crisis. Retrieved January 10, 2019, from www.unhcr.org

UNHCR. (2015). Mediterranean Crisis 2015 at six months: refugee and migrant numbers highest on record. Retrieved January 10, 2019, from https://www.unhcr.org/news/press/2015/7/5592b9b36/mediterranean-crisis-2015-six-months-refugee-migrant-numbers-highest-record.html

UNHCR. (2015). Over 1 million arrivals in Europe by sea, Business Standard. Retrieved January 10, 2019, from https://www.unhcr.org/news/latest/2015/12/5683d0b56/million-sea-arrivals-reach-europe-2015.html

UNHCR. (2015). UNHCR Refugees/Migrants Response - Mediterranean. Retrieved January 10, 2019, from https://data2.unhcr.org/en/situations/mediterranean

UNHCR. (2016). UNHCR Refugees/Migrants Response – Mediterranean. Retrieved January 10, 2019, from https://data2.unhcr.org/en/situations/mediterranean






___________________________

Creative Commons License
The journal offers access to the contents in the open access system on the principles of non-exclusive license Creative Commons (CC BY-ND 3.0).

(old ISSN: 1689-8168)

Declaration of the original version: the original version of the Torun International Studies is the electronic version.

Partnerzy platformy czasopism