Bodyscapes of the act of learning

Ejgil Jespersen



Some years ago I became involved in the study of apprenticeship learning, especially within the field of sport (Jespersen, 1993; 1997). The point of the apprenticeship focus is to expand the notion of learning beyond schools and other educational settings in which learning is institutionalized. Learning is situated everywhere in human (and animal) life and cannot be detached from the social activities and practices in which the learners participate (Lave and Wenger, 1991). In such an interpretational context, I think the medieval institution of learning by apprenticeship is not to be regarded as irrelevant for modem times.


bodyscapes; body learning; Merleau-Ponty; somanotyping; endo learning

Full Text:



Bandura, A. 1977. Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.

Barbaras, R. 2000. Perception and Movement. In: Evans, F. and Lawlor, L. Chiasms: Merleau-Ponty's Notion of Flesh. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Bergson, H. 1991. Stof og hukommelse. Kobenhavn: Munksgaard. (Org. Fr. 1896). Enclopadia Britannica Online (2002): Apprenticeship.

Gallagher, S. 1986. Body Image and Body Scheme: A Conceptual Clarification. The Journal of Mind and Behavior 7: 541-554.

Hume, D. 1978. A Treatise of Human Nature. Second Edition with the text revised and notes by PH. Nidditch. Odford: The Clarendon Press. (First Edition 1888).

James, W. 1961. Psychology. The Briefer Course. Edited by Gordon Allport. Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press. (Original: 1892).

Jespersen, E. 1993. Apprenticeship Learning in Sport. In: Proceedings VII World Congress of Sport Psychology, S. Serpa et al (Eds.). Lisbon: International Society of Sport Psychology, 676-679.

Jespersen, E. 1997. Modeling in sporting apprenticeship: The role of the body itself is attracting attention. Journal of Nordic Educational Research. 17: 178-185.

Jespersen, E. 2002. Korporativ mesterlare. Risskov: Jydsk Padagog-Seminarium.

Jonas, H. 1970. Nobility of Sight: A Study in the Phenomenology of the Senses. In: Spicker, S.F. (ed.). The Philosophy of the Body. Rejections of Cartesian Dualism. New York: Quadrangle, pp. 312-333.

Johnson, M. 1989. Embodied Knowledge. Curriculum Inquiry 19: 362-377.

Lave, J., and Wenger, E. 1991. Situated Learning. Legitimate peripheral participation.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lyons, J. 1987. Ecology of the Body. Styles of Behavior in Human Life. Durham: Duke University Press.

Merleau-Ponty, M. Phenomenology of Perception. Transl. C. Smith. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1962. (French original: 1945).

Merleau-Ponty, M. 1968. The Visible and the Invisible. Transl. A. Lingis. Evanston: Northwestern University Press. (French original: 1964).

Sheets-Johnstone, M. 2000. Kinetic Tactile-Kinesthetic Bodies: Ontogenetical Foundation of Apprenticeship Learning. Human Studies. 23: 343-370.

Sheets-Johnstone, M. 2002. Kinesthetic memory. Theoria et Historia Scientiarum [THIS ISSUE]

Sheldon, W. 1940. The Varieties of Human Physique. New York: Harper & Brothers. Sheldon, W. 1942. The Varieties of Temperament. New York: Harper & Brothers.

Straus, E. 1966. Phenomenological Psychology. London: Tavistock.

Straus, E. 1970, Born to see, bound to behold. In: Spicker, E.F. (Ed.) 77ze Philosophy of the Body. Rejections of Cartesian Dualism. New York: Quandrangle, pp. 334-359.

Wosniak, R,H. 1994. Reflex, Habit and Implicit Response. The Early Elaboration of Theoretical and Methodological Behaviourism. London: Routledge/Thoemmes Press.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN 2392-1196 (online)

Partnerzy platformy czasopism