Redefining Identity. Posthumanist Theories in Westworld

Raquel Cascales, Rosa Fernández-Urtasun

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12775/SetF.2019.019

Abstract


Since the late 20th century, the posthumanist project of human improvement has been proposing the overcoming of the actual human capacities. Although this possibility may not yet be in practice, these hypotheses have emerged in the genre of science fiction resulting in the collective image of what is considered to be possible, even desirable. Moreover, science fiction experiments with these artificial developments up to the greatest extent and provokes a questioning of the matter. In the present study, the tensions relating to posthumanism in the fictional series Westworld are reviewed. The article focuses particularly on identity, one of the most fluctuating concepts of present day. The analysis reveals the need to approach ‘identity’ from a point of view that shows the special importance of personal experience, both from the corporal and psychological point of view.


Keywords


science fiction; androids; bicameral mind; narrative identity

Full Text:

PDF (Español)

References


Alkon, Paul K. 1994. Science Fiction Before 1900: Imagination Discovers Technology. New York: Twayne.

Anaz, Sílvio A. L. 2018. “Construindo séries de TV complexas: a concepção diegética de Westworld.” Famecos 25-2: 1-17.

Bauman, Zygmunt. 2004. Identity: Conversations With Benedetto Vecchi. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Beckman, Frida. 2017. “Posthumanism and Narrativity: Beginning Again with Arendt, Derrida and Deleuze.” En Posthumous Life. Theorizing Beyond Posthuman, editado por Jami Weistein y Claire Colebrook, 43-64. New York: Columbia UP.

Burmon, Andrew. 2016. “The ‘Bicameral Mind’ Explains What’s Next for Westworld” Inverse October 17. Consultada el 12/2/19. https://www.inverse.com/article/14264-bicameral-mind-Westworld-julian-jaynes-origin-of-consciousness-hbo

Ceballos, Noel. 2016. “Jeffrey Wright: Hay que tener cuidado cuando las máquinas son más listas que nosotros.” Revista GQ, 15 diciembre. Consultada el 12/2/19. https://www.revistagq.com/noticias/cultura/articulos/jeffrey-wright-entrevista-Westworld/25096

Chavarría Alfaro, Gabriela. 2015. “El posthumanismo y los cambios en la identidad humana.” Reflexiones 94-1: 97-107.

Chu, Ted. 2014. Human Purpose and Transhuman Potential: A Cosmic Vision of Our Future Evolution. San Rafael CA: Origin Press.

Csicsery-Ronay, Istvan. 2008. The Seven Beauties of Science Fiction. Middletown, Conn: Wesleyan.

Deleuze, Gilles. 1962. Nietzsche et la philosophie. Paris: PUF.

DiGiovanna, James. 2015. “Identity: Difficulties, Discontinuities and Pluralities of Personhood.” En The Palgrave Handbook of Posthumanism in Film and Television, editado por Michael Hauskeller, Thomas D. Philbeck y Curtis D. Carbonell 61-70. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Eliade, Mircea. 2007. Tratado de historia de las religiones. México: Era.

Ezpeleta, Dámaso; Segarra, Ignacio. 2017. “Transhumanism on artificial intelligence portrayed in selected science fiction movies and TV series.” Bioethics Education and Health Sciences 25-1: 64-68.

Foucault, Michel. 2005. Historia de la sexualidad, 1: La voluntad de saber. Madrid: Siglo XXI.

Gidley, Jennifer. 2007. “The Evolution of Consciousness as a Planetary Imperative: An Integration of Integral Views.” Integral Review: A Transdisciplinary and Transcultural Journal for New Thought, Research and Praxis 5: 4-226.

Goertzel, Ben and Stephan Vladimir Bugaj. 2006. The Path to Posthumanity: 21st Century Technology and Its Radical Implications for Mind, Society and Reality. Bethesda, MD: Academica Press.

Haraway, Donna. 1991. “A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology, and Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth Cen¬tury”; en Simians, Cyborgs and Women: The Rein¬vention of Nature; New York, Routledge, p. 149-173.

Harvey, Van A. 2016. “Nietzsche and the Problem of Suffering”. Philosphy Now 114. Consultada el 12/2/19. https://philosophynow.org/issues/114/Nietzsche_and_the_Problem_of_Suffering

Hauskeller, Michael. 2016. Mythologies of Transhumanism. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.

Hibberd, James. 2016. “Westworld showrunners explain that premiere episode. Interview with Jonathan Nolan and Lisa Joy”, Entertainment Weekly, October 02. Consultada el 12/2/19. https://ew.com/article/2016/10/02/Westworld-premiere-interview/

Hirvonen, Onni. 2018. “From Androids to Persons.” En Westworld and Philosophy, editado por James B. South y Kimberly S. Engels, 61-70.

Hofstadter, Douglas R. 1987. Gödel, Escher, Bach. Un eterno y grácil bucle. Barcelona: Tusquets.

Humanity+ Board. 2009. “Transhumanist Declaration”. Consultada el 12/2/19. https://humanityplus.org/philosophy/transhumanist-declaration/

Huxley, Aldous. 1989. Brave New World. New York: Harper Perennial.

Jaynes, Julian. 2000. The Origin Of Consciousness In The Breakdown Of The Bicameral mind. Boston: Mariner Book.

Klein, Michael J. 2012. “Modern Myths: Science Fiction in the Age of Technology.” At The Interface/Probing The Boundaries 85: 255-279.

Lovell, Sue. 2018. “Toward a Poetics of Posthumanist Narrative Using Ruth Ozeki’s A Tale for the Time Being.” Critique: Studies in Contemporary Fiction 59: 57-74.

Lythgoe, Esteban. 2015. “Paul Ricoeur: La huella, entre la filosofía de la historia y la fenomenología del tiempo.” Revista de Filosofía 81: 7-24.

Macintyre, Alasdair. 2007. After Virtue: A Study in Moral Theory. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame.

Menéndez Díaz, J. Ángel. 2013. Laberinto. Madrid: Bubok.

Moll, Nicholas, 2018. “A Special Kind of Game: The Portrayal of Role-play in Westworld.” En Westworld and Philosophy, editado por James B. South y Kimberly S. Engels, 15-25.

Murris, Karin. 2016. The Posthuman Child. New York: Routledge.

Pearce, David. (2015) The Hedonistic Imperative. Consultada el 12/2/19. https://www.hedweb.com

Richards, Jeffrey. 1998. “Preface.” En The Crowded Prairie: American National Identity in the Hollywood Western, escrito por Michael Coyne, ix. New York: I.B. Tauri.

Ricoeur, Paul. 2004. La memoria, la historia, el olvido. Buenos Aires: Fondo de Cultura económica.

Ricoeur, Paul. 2009. Tiempo y narración III. México: Siglo XXI.

Roberts, Adam. 2016. History of Science Fiction. London: Springer.

Santarcageli, Paolo. 2002. El libro de los laberintos: historia de un mito y de un símbolo. Madrid: Siruela.

Singer, Peter. 2015. Animal liberation. New York: Harper Perennial.

South, James B. y Kimberly S. Engels. 2018. Westworld and Philosophy: If You Go Looking for the Truth, Get the Whole Thing. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Talavera, Pedro. 2015. “La narración cinematográfica del posthumanismo.” Cuadernos de Bioética 26: 279-290.

Trapero-Llobera, Patricia. 2018. “The Observer(s) System and the Semiotics of Virtuality in Westworld’s Characters: Jonathan Nolan’s Fictions as a Conceptual Unity.” En Westworld and Philosophy, editado por James B. South y Kimberly S. Engels, 162-172.

Vella, Mario A. 2017. “La filosofia di Westworld.”, Orgoglio Nerd, 20 Septiembre. Consultado el 12/2/19. https://on.techprincess.it/la-filosofia-di-Westworld/

Young, Simon S. 2006. Designer Evolution: A Transhumanist Manifesto. New York: Prometheus Books.








ISSN 2300-7648 (print)
ISSN 2353-5636 (online)

Partnerzy platformy czasopism