Eastern Europe and the British Imperial Imagination, 1914–1919

Andrzej Nowak

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12775/SDR.2017.EN3.01

Abstrakt


Pierwsza wojna światowa wymusiła na elitach Europy Zachodniej potrzebę określenia, czym ma być Europa Wschodnia, jak wyglądać będzie nowy porządek polityczny po zakończeniu wielkiej wojny, czy da się utrzymać równowagę między Rosją a Niemcami oraz co zrobić z coraz większymi ambicjami Rosji sowieckiej przywrócenia kontroli nad ziemiami byłego Imperium Rosyjskiego. Niniejszy tekst dotyczy wizji Europy Wschodniej wśród brytyjskich elit politycznych od memoriału Arthura Balfoura z 1916 r. do koncepcji tej części Europy stworzonej w kręgu premiera Davida Lloyda George’a w 1920 r. oraz analiz Halforda Mackindera, ojca brytyjskiej geopolityki.

During the Great War elites of Western Europe were forced to decide on their perception of Eastern Europe, on a new political order after the end of the war, and to think out how to keep the balance between Russia and Germany and what to do with increasing ambitions of Soviet Russia to regain control over the territories of the former Russian Empire. This text attempts to re-create the specific frame of mind of early twentieth-century British political elites which influenced their perception of Eastern European developments from Arthur Balfour’s memorial in 1916 to Eastern Europe’s concepts by Prime Minister David Lloyd George in 1920 and analyses of Sir Halford Mackinder, the father of British geopolitics.


Słowa kluczowe


Polska; Europa Wschodnia; sprawa polska w czasie I wojny światowej; Wielka Brytania w czasie I wojny światowej; brytyjska polityka zagraniczna; David Lloyd George; Arthur Balfour; Halford Mackinder; Poland; Eastern Europe; Polish cause during World War I

Pełny tekst:

PDF (English)

Bibliografia


Sources

Documents on British Foreign Policy, first series, vol. 3, ed. E.L. Woodward, R. Butler, London, 1949.

The Austen Chamberlain Diary Letters. The Correspondence of Sir Austen Chamberlain with his Sisters Hilda and Ida, 1916–1937, ed. R.C. Self, Cambridge, 1995.

The Churchill Documents, ed. M. Gilbert, vol. 9: Disruption and Chaos, July 1919 – March 1921, Hillsdale (MI), 1977.

Wilsonian East Central Europe: Current Perspectives, ed. J.S. Micgiel, New York, 1995.

Literature

Ashworth L.M., “Realism and the Spirit of 1919: Halford Mackinder, Geopolitics and the Reality of the League of Nations”, European Journal of International Relations, 20, 2010, pp. 1–23.

Bennett G.H., British Foreign Policy During the Curzon Period, 1919–1924, New York, 1995. Blouet B., Halford Mackinder: A Biography, Austin (TX), 1987.

Kearns G., Geopolitics and Empire: The Legacy of Halford Mackinder, Oxford, 2009.

Carroll E.M., Soviet Communism and Western Opinion 1919–1921, Chapel Hill (NC), 1965. Davies N., White Eagle, Red Star. The Polish-Soviet War, 1919–1920, London, 1983.

Debo R.K., Survival and Consolidation: The Foreign Policy of Soviet Russia, 1918–1921, Montreal and Kingston, 1992.

Egremont M., A Life of Arthur James Balfour, London, 1980.

Fry M.G., And Fortune Fled. David Lloyd George, the First Democratic Statesman, 1916–1922, New York, 2011.

Gilbert M., World in Torment: Winston S. Churchill 1917–1922, London, 1990 (1st ed. 1975). Gilmour D., Curzon: Imperial Statesman, New York, 1994.

Gregory J.D., On the Edge of Diplomacy: Rambles and Reflections, 1902–1928, London, 1929.

Hughes M., British Foreign Secretaries in an Uncertain World, 1919–1939, New York, 2006.

Kearns G., “The Political Pivot of Geography”, Geographical Journal, 170, 2004, 4, pp. 337–346.

Kelly S., “How Far the West?: Lord Curzon’s Transcaucastian (Mis)Adventure and the Defence of British India, 1918–23”, International History Review, 35, 2013, pp. 274–93.

Komarnicki T., Rebirth of the Polish Republic: A Study in the Diplomatic History of Europe, 1914–1920, London, 1957.

Lentin A., Lloyd George and the Lost Peace: From Versailles to Hitler, 1919–1940, New York, 2001.

Lieven D., Towards the Flame. Empire, War and the End of Tsarist Russia, London, 2015.

Lloyd G.D., War Memoirs, London, vol. 1 [1933].

MacFarlane L.J., “Hands Off Russia: British Labour and the Russo-Polish War, 1920”, Past & Present, 38, 1967, pp. 126–152.

Mackinder H.J., “The Geographical Pivot of History”, Geographical Journal, 23, April 1904, 4, p. 4.

Mackinder H.J., Democratic Ideals and Reality, London, 1919.

Nowak A., History and Geopolitics: A Contest for Eastern Europe, Warsaw, 2008.

Nowak A., Pierwsza zdrada Zachodu. 1920: zapomniany appeasement, Kraków, 2015.

Nowak A., Polska i trzy Rosje. Studium polityki wschodniej Józefa Piłsudskiego (do kwietnia 1920 roku), 3rd ed., Kraków, 2015.

Pelizza S., “Geopolitics, Federalism, and Imperial Defence: Halford Mackinder and Eastern Europe, 1919–1920”, https://www.academia.edu/4708068/Geopolitics_Federalism_and_ Imperial_Defence_Halford_Mackinder_and_Eastern_Europe_1919-20 (accessed: 8 January 2016).

Singh Mehta U., Liberalism and Empire. A Study in Nineteenth-Century British Liberal Thought, Chicago (IL), 1999.

Smuts J., “Germany’s Eastern Frontier” [addressed to Lloyd George, 22 May 1919], in: Selection from the Smuts Papers, vol. 4, November 1918–August 1919, eds. W.K. Hancock, J. van der Poel, Cambridge University Press, 1966.

Sukiennicki W., East Central Europe during World War I: From Foreign Domination to National Independence, ed. M. Siekierski, vol. 2, New York and Boulder (CO), 1984.

Thompson J.M. Russia, Bolshevism, and the Versailles Peace, Princeton (NJ), 1966.

Tomes J., Balfour and Foreign Policy: The International Thought of a Conservative Statesman, Cambridge, 1997.

Tunander O., “Post-Cold War Europe: A Synthesis of a Bipolar Friend-Foe Structure and a Hierarchic Cosmos-Chaos Structure?”, in: Geopolitics in Post-Wall Europe, eds. O. Tunander, P. Baev, V.I. Einagel, London, 1997.

Ullman R.H., Anglo-Soviet Relations, 1917–1921, The Anglo-Soviet Accord, Princeton (NJ), 1972.

Ullman R.H., Anglo-Soviet Relations, 1917–1921, vol. 2: Britain and the Russian Civil War, Princeton (NJ), 1968.

Ullman R.H., Anglo-Soviet Relations, 1917–1921, vol. 3: The Anglo-Soviet Accord, Princeton (NJ), 1972.

Venier P., “The Geographical Pivot of History and Early Twentieth-Century Geopolitical Culture”, Geographical Journal, 170, 2004, 4, pp. 330–336.

White P., Iron Curtain. From Stage to Cold War, Oxford, 2007.

White S., “Labour’s Council of Action 1920”, Journal of Contemporary History, 9, 1974, pp. 99–122.


Partnerzy platformy czasopism