Is “being” predicated in only one sense, after all?

Wojciech Żełaniec



In this essay, I argue that for sentences of form “A is B” there is a distinction between identity and “mere” predication to be made, and that Leśniewski’s Ontology puts us in a better position to make this distinction than first-order predicate logic. I also gesture at how Ontology could help us to decide questions of identity. The nub of the matter seems to be a “primordial” sense of the copula that Ontology has at its basis.

Full Text:



Baker, L., “Why constitution is not identity”, Journal of Philosophy 94 (1997): 12–32

Benacerraf, P., “What numbers could not be”, The Philosophical Review 74 (1965): 47–73.

Fine, K., “The identity of material objects”, in L. Albertazzi and R. Poli (eds.), Topics in Philosophy and Artificial Intelligence, p. 33-37, Mitteleuropäisches Kulturinstitut, Bolzen 1991.

Geach, P.T., “History of the corruptions of logic”, in Logic Matters, p. 44-61, Basil Blackwell 1972.

Geach, P.T., “Identity”, in Logic Matters, p. 238–247, Basil Blackwell 1972.

Gibbard, A., “Contingent identity”, Journal of Philosophical Logic 4 (1975): 37–71.

Gracia, J.J.E., Individuality: An essay on the foundations of metaphysics, State University of New York Press, Albany, NY. 1988.

Hodges, W., “Elementary predicate logic”, in D. M. Gabbay and F. Guenthner, Handbook of Philosophical Logic, vol. I, chapter I.1, p. 2–131, D. Reidel, Dordrecht 1983.

Küng, G., “Funktory prologowe i kwantyfikatory u Stanisława Leśniewskiego”, Studia Semiotyczne 8 (1978): 199–210.

Lejewski, C., “A re-examination of the russellian theory of descriptions”, Philosophy. The Journal of The Royal Institute of Philosophy 35 (1960): 14–29.

Lejewski, C., “Syntax and semantics of ordinary language”, The Aristotelian Society, Supplementary Volume 49 (1975): 127–146.

Luschei, E.C., The Logical Systems of Lesniewski, Studies in Logic And The Foundations of Mathematics, North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam 1962.

Montague, R., “English as a formal language”, in R. H. Thomason (ed.), Formal Philosophy: Selected Papers of Richard Montague, p. 188–221, Yale University Press 1974.

Simons, P., “Existential propositions”, Grazer Philosophische Studien 42 (1992).

Simons, P., “Leśniewski and generalized quantifiers”, European Journal of Philosophy 2 (1994): 65–84.

Sinisi, V.F., “Kotarbiński’s theory of genuine names”, Theoria 32 (1966): 80–95.

Sklar, L., Philosophy of Physics, Oxford University Press 1992.

Wiggins, D., Sameness and Substance, Basil Blackwell, Oxford 1980.

ISSN: 1425-3305 (print version)

ISSN: 2300-9802 (electronic version)

Partnerzy platformy czasopism