Characteristics and competences of a contemporary Polish manager working in international markets

Beata Anna Glinkowska



Purpose: The main aim of the study is to identify the competences and characteristics of a contemporary Polish manager working in the international markets either directly or indirectly (in Polish enterprises) and then to compare that profile with that of the Polish manager proposed by J. Penc in 2001. There are many models of managerial competence, however, this model was chosen for several reasons:

-        it is far enough in time but not so far to be drastically different;

-        it is a model of early Polish market economy; currently the market shows symptoms of a mature economy, so both can be juxtaposed;

-        it comprehensively covers "hard" and "soft" competences;

-        shows the actual state of market in 2001 and the probabist state for 2010, which, in combination with current research, provides an overview of changes and directions of evolution;

-        it is a model for a market economy that is intensively searching for its opportunities in connection with the globalization process of the economy.

Such an action is to bring the following results:

-        the creation of a personal-competence profile of the contemporary Polish manager; Comparison and analysis of differences in the personal-competence profile over the past sixteen years;

-        the ability to develop a characteristics and competencies profile of the manager of the future;

-        the emergence of a Polish model, which will allow foreign researchers to have a basis for comparison with the existing (or emerging) models of managerial competencies from other countries.

The study is the result of empirical research and comparative studies.

Methodology/approach: Own empirical research has been conducted for the development of this study. The research instruments applied in this study was self-administered questionnaire and researcher-administered questionnaire. The study was conducted on a group of 90 managers from micro, small and medium enterprises in 2014-2017 (55 companies). These managers are experienced in international business. The companies they manage are co-operating with at least one foreign market for  several years. This cooperation takes place in the following forms: import and export (direct and indirect), production cooperation of project cooperation, strategic alliance or direct foreign investment. The research organizations have a productive, commercial, service and project activity range. There are no virtual-only companies, even though some companies exhibit its features, as they also run wholesale web-based sales of their products. All the researched organizations are in contact with different cultures and diverse environments. An analysis of subject literature was carried out, both on retrospective and current works. A critical comparative analysis was performed.

Findings: This study is a comparative analysis of the managerial characteristics and competences profile of the Polish manager over the last sixteen years. The directions of evolving these qualities and competences in contemporary Polish managers have been identified, which may be the basis for future analyses. The conducted research has shown a clear evolution of the characteristics and competences of a modern manager in Polish conditions. Based on them, the future profile can be determined.

Implications/limitations: The study may be an inspiration for further research and analyses. It can also be used to build the personal – competence profile of a contemporary manager and manager of the past(at least in Polish terms), which can directly translate into the development (and creation) of managers’ education in order to develop their competence. The created profile can be used to build job descriptions, and in the recruitment process of "right" managers for modern businesses. The philosophical differences of organizations operating on international markets and the cultural diversity of some (mainly non-European) countries may result in limiting the application of managerial personal – competence profile.

Originality/value: This article is an original work which contains an original project of the profile of the characteristics and competences of a contemporary “Polish international” manager, which can be successfully used in economic practice and scientific theory.


organization; manager; manager-leader; manager profile; internationalization

Full Text:



Adamik, A., Bednarska-Wnuk, I. (2014), "Luka kompetencyjna a kompetencje kierownicze w MSP", Studia Ekonomiczne Regionu Łódzkiego, No. 13, pp. 63-77.

Averdunk, K. (1996), "Przedsiębiorstwo jako ucząca się organizacja", Zarządzanie na Świecie, No. 1, pp. 33-35.

Austen, A. (2010), "Efektywność przywództwa w organizacji publicznej", Organizacja i zarządzanie, Vol. 4 No. 12, pp. 25-42.

Bratnicki, M. (1988), Transformacja przedsiębiorstwa, Wydawnictwo Akademii Ekonomicznej, Katowice.

Crozier, M. (1993), Przedsiębiorstwo na podsłuchu. Jak uczyć się zarządzania postindustrialnego, Polskie Wydawnictwo Ekonomiczne, Warszawa.

Czapla, T. (2011), Modelowanie kompetencji pracowniczych w organizacji, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego, Łódź.

Drucker, P.F. (1994), Menedżer skuteczny, Akademia Ekonomiczna w Krakowie, Kraków.

Egli, J.A. (1996), "Kluczowe umiejętności w kierowaniu ludźmi", Zarządzanie na Świecie, No. 6, pp. 30-34.

Glinkowska, B., Kaczmarek, B. (2016a), Zarządzanie międzynarodowe i internacjonalizacja przedsiębiorstw. Teoria i praktyka, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego, Łódź.

Glinkowska, B., Kaczmarek, B. (2016b), Zarządzanie międzynarodowe. Strategie i studia przypadków, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego, Łódź.

Griffin, R. (2004), Podstawy zarządzania organizacjami, Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Warszawa.

Kaczmarek, B. (2013), Współczesne wyzwania dla zarządzania przedsiębiorstwami, Wydawnictwo Dom Organizatora, Toruń.

Kanter, R.M. (1998), "Pozyskiwanie ludzi dla organizacji przyszłości", in: Hesselbein, F., Goldsmith M., Beckhard, R. (Eds.), Organizacja przyszłości, Wydawnictwo Business Press, Warszawa, pp. 160-162.

Katz, R.L. (1955), "Skills of an Effective Administrator", Harvard Business Review, Vol. 52 No. 5, pp. 38-40.

Kubik, K. (2012), Menedżer w procesie zarządzania zasobami ludzkimi, Wydawnictwo PTM, Warszawa.

Kuc, B.R. (2016), "Paradoksy przywództwa: Od szamana do showmana", E-mentor, pp. 163-165.

Levy-Leboyer, C. (1997), Kierowanie kompetencjami. Bilans doświadczeń zawodowych, Wydawnictwo Poltext, Warszawa.

Nieder, P. (1998), "Zarządzanie przez zaufanie", Zarządzanie na Świecie, No. 9, pp. 20-22.

Nizard, G. (1998), Metamorfozy przedsiębiorstwa. Zarządzanie w zmiennym otoczeniu organizacji, Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Warszawa.

Nogalski, B., Śniadecki, J. (1998), Kształtowanie umiejętności menedżerskich, Wydawnictwo TNOiK, Bydgoszcz.

Penc, J. (2001), Kreowanie zachowań w organizacji, Agencja Wydawnicza Placet, Warszawa.

Peters, T. (1992), Liberation Management. Necessary Disorganization for the Nanosecond Nineties, Alferd A. Knopf, New York.

Prahalad, C.K. (1998), Rola menedżerów nowej ery na konkurencyjnym rynku, in: Hesselbein, F., Goldsmith M., Beckhard, R. (Eds.), Organizacja przyszłości, Wydawnictwo Business Press, Warszawa, pp. 191-192.

Rakowska, A. (2007), Kompetencje menedżerskie kadry kierowniczej we współczesnych organizacjach, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Marie Curie-Skłodowskiej, Lublin.

Sajkiewicz, A. (2008), Kompetencje menedżerów w organizacji uczącej się, Difin, Warszawa.

Schermerhorn, J.R. (2008), Zarządzanie. Kluczowe koncepcje, Polskie Wydawnictro Ekonomiczne, Warszawa.

Strużyna, J. (2000), "Wymiary kapitału ludzkiego firmy", in: Kożuch, B. (Ed.), Kształtowanie kapitału ludzkiego firmy, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu w Białymstoku, Białystok.

Sull, D.N. (1999), "Why Good Companies Go Bad", Harvard Business Review, Vol. 77 No. 4, pp. 1-12.

Walkowiak, R. (2004), Model kompetencji menedżerów organizacji samorządowych, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Warmińsko-Mazurskiego w Olsztynie, Olsztyn.

ISSN 2083-103X (print)
ISSN 2392-1412 (online)

Partnerzy platformy czasopism