Dagmara Lewicka



The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of level of trust upon employee commitment. Two types of organisational trust was taken under consideration: impersonal- vertical and horizontal commitment as well as four types of organisational commitment: affective, normative, continuance benefit-based and fear-based and professional commitment: affective, normative and continuance. Also influence of trust propensity upon the level of particular types of organizational trust was tested.

The survey was conducted in Poland on randomly selected 501 employees. Structural equation models were estimated confirming hypothesized relationships and explaining the substantial amount of variance of commitment measures. Research results allowed for verifying the model presenting relationships between organisational trust and commitment. 


Organisational trust; Organisational commitment; Proffesional commitment; Social Exchange Theory; Trust Propensity

Full Text:



Allen, N. J., Meyer, J. P. (1990), “The measurement and antecedens of affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the organization”, Journal of Occupational Psychology, Vol. 63 No. 1, pp. 1-18.

Altuntaş, S., Baykal, U. (2010), “Relationship between nurses’ organizational trust levels and their organizational citizenship behaviors”, Journal of Nursing Scholarship, Vol. 42 No. 2, pp. 186-194.

Bamber, E. M., Iyer, V. M. (2002), “Big 5 auditors’ professional and organisational identification: consistency or conflict?”, Auditing, Vol. 21 No. 2, pp. 21-38.

Becker, T. E., Billings, R. S., Eveleth, D. M., Gilbert, N. W. (1996), “Foci and bases of commitment: implications for performance”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 39 No. 1, pp. 464-482.

Bentler, P. M., (2007), “On tests and indices for evaluating structural models”, Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 42 No. 5, pp. 825-829. DOI:

Borkowska, S. (Ed.) (2010), Rola ZZL w kreowaniu innowacyjności organizacji, C.H. Beck, Warszawa.

Brower, H. H., Schoorman, F. D., Tan, H. H. (2000), “A model of relational leadership: the integration of trust and leader-member exchange”, Leadership Quarterly, Vol. 11 No. 2, pp. 227-250. DOI:

Burke, C. S., Sims, D. E., Lazzara, E. H., Salas, E. (2007), “Trust in leadership: a multilevel review and integration”, Leadership Quarterly, Vol. 18 No. 6, pp. 606-632. DOI:

Chang, S. E., Liu, A. Y., Lin, S. (2015), “Exploring privacy and trust for employee monitoring”, Industrial Management & Data Systems, Vol. 115 No. 1, pp. 88-106. DOI:

Ciancutti, A., Steding, T. (2001), Built on trust: Gaining competitive advantage in any organization, Chicago: Contemporary Books, Chicago.

Cohen, A. (2007), “Commitment before and after: An evaluation and reconceptualization of organizational commitment”, Human Resource Management Review, Vol. 17 No. 3, pp. 336-354. DOI:

Colquit, J. A., Lepine, J. A., Wesson, M. J. (2011), Organizational behavior: Improving Performance and Commitment in the Workplace, New York: McGraw Hill/Irwin. International Edition, New York.

Cropanzano, R., Mitchell, M. (2005), “Social exchange theory: An interdisciplinary review”, Journal of Management, Vol. 31 No. 6, pp. 874-885. DOI:

Dirks, K. T., Ferrin, D. L. (2001), “The role of trust in organizational settings”, Organization Science, Vol. 12 No. 4, pp. 450-467. DOI: orsc.12.4.450.10640

Dirks, T. K., Ferrin, D. L. (2002), “Trust in leadership: meta-analytic findings and implications for research and practice”, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 87 No. 4, pp. 611-628. DOI:

Eby, L. T., Freeman, D. M., Rush, M. C., Lance, C. E. (1999), “The motivational bases of affective organizational commitment”, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, Vol. 72 No. 1, pp. 463-483.

Farris, G., Cordero, R. (2002), “Leading your scientists and engineers”, Research Technology Management, Vol. 45 No. 6, pp. 13-25.

Hancock, J. I., Allen, D. G., Bosco, F. A., McDaniel, K. R., Pierce, C. A. (2013), “Meta-Analytic Review of Employee Turnover as a Predictor of Firm Performance”, Journal of Management Vol. 39 No. 3, pp. 573-603. DOI: http://dx.doi. org/10.1177/0149206311424943

Hsien Niu, K. (2010), “Organizational trust and knowledge obtaining in industrial clusters”, Journal of KnowledgeManagement, Vol. 14 No. 1, pp. 141-155.

Irving, P. G., Coleman, D. F., Cooper, C. L. (1997), “Further assessment of a threecomponent model of occupational commitment: Gen- eralizability and differences across occupations”, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 82 No. 3, pp. 444-452. DOI:

Johnson, S. K., Holladay, C. L., Quinones, M. A. (2009), “Organizational citizenship behavior in performance evaluations: distributive justice or injustice?”, Journal of Business and Psychology, Vol. 24 No. 4, pp. 409-418. DOI:

Johnson, R. E., Groff, K. W., Taing, M. U. (2009), “Nature of the interactions among organizational commitments: complementary, competitive or synergistic?”, British Journal of Management, Vol. 20 No. 4, pp. 431-447. DOI: 1/j.1467-8551.2008.00592.x

Kwon, I. W. G., Banks, D. W. (2004), “Factors related to the organizational and professional commitment of internal auditors”, Managerial Auditing Journal, Vol. 19 No. 5, pp. 606-622. DOI:

Lee, H. J. (2004), “The role of competence-based trust and organizational identification in continuous improvement”, Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol. 19 No. 6, pp. 623-639. DOI:

Lewicka, D. (2012), “Relacje między zaufaniem horyzontalnym, współpracą i kulturą proinnowacyjną”, Organization and Management, Vol. 3 No. 152, pp. 11-25.

Lewicka, D. (2013), “Wpływ zaufania wertykalnego na zaangażowanie organizacyjne pracowników”, Acta Universitatis Lodziensis. Folia Oeconomica, t. 282, pp. 179-186.

Lewicka, D. (2014), “The Influence of Organizational Trust upon Affective and Calculative Commitment”, The Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge, Vol. 20 No. 1, pp. 205-212.

Lewicka, D., Krot, K., (2015), “The model of HRM-trust-commitment relationships”, Industrial Management & Data Systems, Vol. 115 No. 8, pp.1457-1480. DOI:

Lucas, L. (2005), “The impact of trust and reputation on the transfer of best practices”, Journal of Knowledge Management, Vol. 9 No. 4, pp. 87-101. DOI:

Luchak, A. A., Gellatly, I. R. (2007), “A comparison of linear and nonlinear relatickaons between organizational commitment and work outcomes”, The Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 92 No. 3, pp. 786-793.

Martin, K. D., Cullen, J. B. (2006), “Continuities and Extensions of Ethical Climate Theory: A Meta-Analytic Review”, Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 69 No. 2, pp. 175-194. DOI:

Meyer, J. P., Allen, N. J. (1991), “A three-component conceptualization of organizational commitment”, Human Resource Management Review, Vol. 1 No. 1, pp. 61-89. DOI:

Meyer, J. P., Allen, N. J. (1997), Commitment in the Workplace: Theory, Research, and Application, Sage, Thousand Oaks.

Meyer, J. P., Allen, N. J., Smith, C. A. (1993), “Commitment to organizations and occupations: extension and test of a three-component conceptualization”, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 78 No. 4, pp. 538-551. DOI:

Meyer, J. P., Becker, T. E., Van Dick, R. (2006), “Social identities and commitments at work: toward an integrative model”, Journal of Organizational Behaviour, Vol. 27 No. 5, pp. 665-683. DOI:

Meyer, R. C., Davis, J. H., Schoorman, D. (1995), “An integrative model of organizational trust”, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 20 No. 3, pp. 709-734. DOI:

Meyer, J. P., Herscovitch, L. (2001), “Commitment in the workplace: toward a general model”, Human Resource Management Review, Vol. 11 No. 3, pp. 299-326. DOI:

Meyer, J. P., Paunonen, S. V., Gellatly, I. R., Goffin, R. D., Jackson, D. M. (1989), “Organizational commitment and job performance: it’s the nature of the commitment that counts”, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 74 No. 1, pp. 152-156. DOI:

Meyer, J. P., Stanley, D. J., Herscovitch, L., Topolnytsky, L. (2002), “Affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the organization: a meta-analysis of antecedents, correlates, and consequences”, Journal of Vocational Behavior, Vol. 61 No. 1, pp. 20-52. DOI:

Niederman, F., Sumner, M., Maertz, C. P. (2007), “Testing and extending the unfolding model of voluntary turnover to IT professionals”, Human Resource Management, Vol. 46 No. 3, pp. 331-347. DOI:

Nunnally, J. C., Bernstein, I. H., Berge, J. M. T. (1967), Psychometric theory, New York: McGraw-Hill, New York.

Otley, D. T., Pierce, B. J. (1996), “The operation of control systems in large audit firms”, Auditing: A Journal of Practice and Theory, Vol. 15 No. 2, pp. 65-84.

Pai, F. Y., Yeh, T. M., Huang, K. I. (2012), “Professional commitment of information technology employees under depression environment”, International Journal of Electronic Business Management, Vol. 10 No. 1, pp. 17-28.

Peterson, R. A., Yeolib, K. (2013), “On the Relationship Between Coefficient Alpha and Composite Reliability”, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 98 No. 1, pp. 194-198. DOI:

Rong, G., Grover, V. (2009), “Keeping up-to-date with information technology: testing a model of technology knowledge renewal effectiveness for IT professionals”, Information & Management, Vol. 46 No. 7, pp. 376-387. DOI:

Schoorman, F. D., Mayer, R. C., Davis, J. H. (2007), “An integrative model of organizational trust: past, present and future”, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 32 No. 2, pp. 344-354. DOI:

Semerciöz, F. (2011), “An Empirical Study on the Role of Interpersonal and Institutional Trust in Organizational Innovativeness”, International Business Research, Vol. 4 No. 2, pp. 125-136.

Somech, A., Bogler, R. (2002), “Antecedents and consequences of teacher organisational and professional commitment”, Educational Administration Quarterly, Vol. 38 No. 4, pp. 555-577.

Tam, Y. M., Korczynski, M., Frenkel, S. J. (2002), “Organizational and occupational commitment: knowledge workers in large corporations”, Journal of Management Studies, Vol. 39 No. 6, pp. 775-801.

Tzafrir, S. S., Eitam-Meilik, M. (2005), “The impact of downsizing on trust and employee practices in high tech firms: A longitudinal analysis”, Journal of High Technology Management Research, Vol. 16 No. 2, pp. 193-207. DOI: hitech.2005.10.008

Vanderberghe, C., Bentein, K., Stinglhamber, F. (2004), “Affective commitment to the organization, supervisor, and work group: antecedents and outcomes”, Journal of Vocational Behaviour, Vol. 64, pp. 47-71.

Vanderberghe, C., Bentein, K. (2009), “A closer look at the relationship between affective commitment to supervisors and organizations and turnover”, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, Vol. 82 No. 2, pp. 331-348.

Vanhala, M., Ahteela, R. (2011), “The effect of HRM practices on impersonal organizational trust”, Management Research Review, Vol. 34 No. 8, pp. 869-888. DOI:

Vincent, C., Xu, H. (2012), “Professional commitment, organizational commitment, and the intention to leave for professional advancement”, Information Technology & People, Vol. 25 No. 1, pp. 31-54.

Wang, X., Armstrong, A. (2004), “An empirical study of PM professionals’ commitment to their profession and employing organizations”, International Journal of Project Management, Vol. 22 No. 5, pp. 377-386.

Zeffane, R., Connell, J. (2003), “Trust and HRM in the new millennium”, International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 14 No. 1, pp. 3-11. DOI:

Action funded by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education under the contract number 916/P-DUN/2019 by funds dedicated to dissemination of research findings. Preparing for publication papers in English and employing reviewers affiliated in research institutions abroad in 8 issues of the Journal of Positive Management in 2019-2020: Vol. 10, No. 1-4, Vol. 11, No. 1-4.

Partnerzy platformy czasopism