New risc factors in progression of age-related macular degeneration

Khrystyna Kovalchuk



Background. Allot of studies investigate the etiology and pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The exudative form of AMD is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in the elderly. At the same time neurosensory retina detachment in  AMD  has high level of prevalence and severity of comlications but little attention has been paid to explaying the risk factors of retina edema and the possibility of their role on the interstitial fluid accumulation. The investigation of patterns for predicting the risk of retinal detachment is still cosiderable, as this is important for patients selection with high risk of developing retinal detachment of AMD and effective preventive treatment.


Purpose: To investigate new risk factors for the progression of age-related macular degeneration.


Materials and methods. The prospective study included  37 patients (67 eyes) with the exudative form of AMD (Category 4 according to the AREDS). 21 (56.8%) patients had exudative detachment of neurosensory retina. The ophthalmologic examination included anamnesis, visometry, tonometry, biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography. ATP, ADP, adenosine, platelet-activating factor (PAF), adrenaline and isadrin were used to study the functional activity of platelet receptors. The evaluation of platelet aggregation was carried out by a turbidimetric method. Methods of pair correlation analysis and multiple linear regression models were used  to analyse the relationship between the values of individual agonists the retinal detachment.


 Results. After analysis of nine items, three of which were found to be significantly associated with serous detachment of neurosensory retina, including the activity of PAF receptors, adenosine A2A receptors and α2-adrenoreceptors. The prognosis of the cases of this complication in the general cohort of patients with exudative AMD turned out to be positive in 87.5%.


Conclusions. Correlation between the development of exudative detachment of neurosensory retina and the functional state of Pl can be used in the selection for preventive treatment of patients with retinal detachment in AMD.


age-related macular degeneration; platelet’s receptors; model of prediction of complications

Full Text:



Tso MOM., Suarez MJ.,, Eberhart CG. Pathologic study of early manifestations of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy and pathogenesis of choroidal neo-vascularization. Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep. 2017 ;11:176-180.

Chen L, Zhang X, Gan Y., Liu B, Zhang Y, Wen F. Retinal pigment epithelium hyperplasia overlying pigment epithelial detachment in age-related macular degeneration can masquerade as neovascularization on optical coherence tomography angiography. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2018;256(12):2283-2291.

Gupta RR, Iaboni DSM, Seamone ME, Sarraf D. Inner, outer, and full-thickness retinal folds after rhegmatogenous retinal detachment repair: A review. Surv Ophthalmol. 2019;64(2):135-161.

Sung IS, Park SY, Jeong KY, Kim HM. Investigation of the preventive effect of calcium on inflammation-mediated choroidal neovascularization. Life Sci.2019;233:116727.

Clemens CR, Eter N. Retinal pigment epithelium tears: risk factors, mechanism and therapeutic monitoring. Ophthalmologica. 2016;235(1):1-9.

Fragiotta S, Rossi T, Cutini A, Grenga PL, Vingolo EM. Рredictive factors for development of neovascular age-related macular degeneration: a spectral-domain optical coherence tomography study. Retina. 2018 Feb;38(2):245-252.

Wurm A, Pannicke T, Iandiev I, Bühner E, Pietsch UC, Reichenbach A, Wiedemann P, Uhlmann S, Bringmann A. Changes in membrane conductance play a pathogenic role in osmotic glial cell swelling in detached retinas. Am J Pathol. 2006;169(6):1990-1998.

Oellers P, Eliott D. Overloaded dysfunctional rpe leads to delayed absorption of subretinal fluid after retinal detachment repair. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina.2017;48(10):852-855.

Yang D, Elner SG, Clark AJ, Hughes BA, Petty HR, Elner VM. Activation of P2X receptors induces apoptosis in human retinal pigment epithelium. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52(3):1522-1530.

Madeira MH, Boia R, Elvas F, Martins T, Cunha RA, Ambrósio AF, Santiago AR.

Fälker K, Ljungberg LU, Kardeby C, Lindkvist M, Sirsjö A, Grenegård M. Adrenoceptor α2A signalling countervails the taming effects of synchronous cyclic nucleotide-elevation on thrombin-induced human platelet activation and aggregation. Cell Signal. 2019;59:96-109.

Qin D, Jiang Y, Jin X. Effect of macrophage migration inhibitory factor on inflammatory cytokines and fibrogenic gene expression in human RPE cells. Mol Med Rep. 2019;20(1):830-836.

Age-Related Eye Disease Study Research Group. A randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of high-dose supplementation with vitamins C and E, beta carotene, and zinc for age-related macular degeneration and vision loss: AREDS report number 8. Arch Ophthalmol 2001;119:1417-36.

Reed RK, Rubin K. Transcapillary exchange: role and importance of the interstitial fluid pressure and the extracellular matrix. Cardiovasc Res. 2010;87(2):211-217.

Kawahara A, Hikichi T, Kitaya N, Takahashi J, Mori F, Yoshida A. Adenosine agonist regulation of outward active transport of fluorescein across retinal pigment epithelium in rabbits. Exp Eye Res. 2005;80(4):493-499.

Collison DJ, Tovell VE, Coombes LJ, Duncan G, Sanderson J. Potentiation of ATP-induced Ca2+ mobilisation in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. Exp Eye Res. 2005;80(4):465-475.

Reigada D, Zhang X, Crespo A, Nguyen J, Liu J, Pendrak K, Stone RA, Laties AM, Mitchell C. Stimulation of an alpha1-adrenergic receptor downregulates ecto-5' nucleotidase activity on the apical membrane of RPE cells. Purinergic Signal. 2006;2(3):499-507.

Wurm A, Pannicke T, Iandiev I, Francke M, Hollborn M, Wiedemann P, Reichenbach A, Osborne NN, Bringmann A. Purinergic signaling involved in Müller cell function in the mammalian retina. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2011;30(5):324-342.

Iandiev I, Uckermann O, Pannicke T, Wurm A, Tenckhoff S, Pietsch UC, Reichenbach A, Wiedemann P, Bringmann A, Uhlmann S. Glial cell reactivity in a porcine model of retinal detachment. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47(5):2161-2171.

Aires ID2, Boia R, Rodrreichigues-Neves AC, Madeira MH2, Marques C, Ambrósio AF, Santiago AR. Blockade of microglial adenosine A2A receptor suppresses elevated pressure-induced inflammation

Kauppinen A2, Paterno JJ, Blasiak J, Salminen A, Kaarniranta K. Inflammation and its role in age-related macular degeneration. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2016;73(9):1765-1786.

Pinna A MD2, Porcu T MD, D'Amico-Ricci G MD, Dore S MD2, Boscia F MD, Paliogiannis P, Carru C, Zinellu A. Complete blood cell count-derived inflammation biomarkers in men with age-related macular degeneration. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2018; 28:1-5.

Ribeiro LS, Migliari Branco L, Franklin BS. Regulation of innate immune responses by platelets. Front Immunol. 2019;10:1320.

Hackler PC, Reuss S, Konger RL, Travers JB, Sahu RP. Systemic Platelet-activating Factor Receptor Activation Augments Experimental Lung Tumor Growth and Metastasis. Cancer Growth Metastasis. 2014;7:27-32.

Lordan R, Tsoupras A, Zabetakis I. The potential role of dietary platelet-activating factor inhibitors in cancer prevention and treatment. Adv Nutr. 2019;10(1):148-164.

Moschos MM, Laios K, Androudi S, Ladas DS, Chatziralli IP. Anti-platelet effects of vitamin supplements in age-related macular degeneration: an in vitro study. Cutan Ocul Toxicol. 2018;37(3):207-209.

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

Journal of Education, Health and Sport formerly Journal of Health Sciences

Declaration on the original version.

Editors indicates that the main version of the magazine is to issue a "electronic".

The journal has had 5 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. § 8. 2) and § 12. 1. 2) 22.02.2019.

1223 Journal of Education, Health and Sport eISSN 2391-8306 7

ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

Archives 2011 - 2014

PBN 2011 - 2014

POL-index 2011 - 2014

BASE 2011 - 2014

Indexed in Bases, Bazy indeksacyjne: ERIH Plus, Worldcat, PBN/POL-Index, ICI Journals Master List, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), ZBD, Ulrich's periodicals, Google Scholar, Polska Bibliografia Lekarska, EuroPub database, NLM Catalog Result - NCBI, BASE, Russian Sciences Index, Arianta.

US NLM = 101679844

101679844 - NLM Catalog Result - NCBI

Find a library that holds this journal:


PBN Poland



Redaction, Publisher and Editorial Office

Publisher and Editorial Office
Department of Physical Culture,
Faculty of Earth Sciences and Spatial Management,
Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Poland
Address: Str. Lwowska 1, 87-100 Toruń, Poland

  Open Access ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

The journal has been approved for inclusion in ERIH PLUS.

The ERIH PLUS listing of the journal is available at

Indexed in Index Copernicus Journals Master List.,p24782242,3.html

ICV 2019 = 100.00 ICV 2018 = 95.95 ICV 2017 = 91.30 ICV 2016 = 84.69 ICV 2015 = 93.34 ICV 2014 = 89.51 Standardized Value: 8.27 ICV 2013: 7.32 ICV 2012: 6.41 ICV 20115.48

RG Journal Impact: 0.18 *

*This value is calculated using ResearchGate data and is based on average citation counts from work published in this journal. The data used in the calculation may not be exhaustive.

RG Journal impact history

2020Available summer 2021
2018 / 20190.18

RG Journal impact over time

RG Journal impact

Indexed in Polish Scholarly Bibliography (PBN) (PBN Polska Bibliografia Naukowa) (

is a portal of the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education, collecting information on publications of Polish scientists and on Polish and foreign scholarly journals. Polish Scholarly Bibliograhpy is a part of POL-on - System of Information on Higher Education. It is operated by the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, University of Warsaw.

Indexed in Russian Sciences Index Российский индекс научного цитирования (РИНЦ)

Indexed in Arianta Polish scientific and professional electronic journals Aneta Drabek i Arkadiusz Pulikowski


Partnerzy platformy czasopism