Risk factors of the gastric cancer – the short review

Piotr Michał Jarosz, Paweł Oszczędłowski, Michalina Pytka, Justyna Nowaczek

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12775/JEHS.2020.10.09.095

Abstract


Introduction and purpose: Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most frequent malignancies around the world. There were nearly 1 million new cases in 2018. Gastric malignancies have heterogeneous etiopathogenesis. Lifestyle, socioeconomic status, blood group A, medical condition, Helicobacter Pylori infection, family history, genetic polymorphism, diet, demographic characteristics, occupational exposure, ionizing radiation are considered as predisposing factors.

Objective: The purpose of our study is to review a currently available data on PubMed about risk factors of gastric cancer to consider better understanding of gastric cancer etiology.

A brief description of the state of knowledge: Current studies suggest that red meat, pickled vegetable or alcohol consumption, low socioeconomic status, cigarette smoking, blood group A and Helicobacter Pylori infection increase risk of GC. Decreased risk of gastric cancer is observed in case of white meat consumption, statin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs intake. It seems that family history and other genetic predispositions may have a crucial role in gastric cancer development.

Conclusions: Variety of environmental, genetic and medical factors are considered with an increased risk of gastric cancer. The awareness of its existence facilitates pathogenesis of gastric malignancies and enables the implementation of proper diagnostic procedures, screening programs and prophylaxis.


Keywords


gastric cancer; risk factors; review

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