Assessment of students' knowledge on iodine supplementation by women planning pregnancy

Aleksandra Obuchowska, Justyna Wójcik, Arkadiusz Standyło, Karolina Obuchowska, Alicja Ozga, Żaneta Kimber-Trojnar, Bożena Leszczyńska-Gorzelak



Introduction: Iodine is essential for the synthesis of the thyroid hormones. Proper thyroid function in a pregnant woman depends on the accumulated reserves of iodine in the pre-pregnancy period. If they are sufficient, the production of thyroid hormones is adequate even in the case of increased demand. Adequate iodine status during pregnancy is crucial for maternal health and foetal growth. Severe iodine deficiency causes maternal and foetal hypothyroxinaemia, leading to irreversible brain damage, manifested by mental retardation and neurological disorders. The daily requirement for iodine for pregnant women has been determined by The World Health Organization (WHO) at 250 µg. Most likely, the demand for it cannot be covered only by dietary iodine intake, so iodine should be supplemented in the form of tablets at a dose of 150-200 µg daily.

Purpose: The aim of the study is to assess students' knowledge on iodine supplementation by women planning pregnancy and pregnant women.

Material and method: Students' knowledge regarding the importance of iodine supplementation was verified using anonymous Internet questionnaire. The obtained results were analysed and checked on the basis of scientific literature.

Results: The percentage of students who think iodine supplementation should be recommended is 22.7%, and 9.7% believe it is not necessary. Only 8.8% of the respondents chose the correct recommended dose of iodine. Surprisingly, most of the respondents do not know the recommended iodine dose, as much as 71.7% of them.

Conclusions: The proper supply of iodine has a decisive impact on the proper functioning of the body, and its deficiency has serious consequences, especially in the womb. The problem of iodine deficiency is serious. This is also confirmed by the results of our surveys. It is important to educate students on the recommendations for iodine supplementation in women of childbearing age.


Iodine; Iodine deficiency disorder; pregnancy; supplementation among students; dietary supplements; foetal development

Full Text:



Taylor PN, Vaidya B. Iodine supplementation in pregnancy - is it time? Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2016;85(1):10-14. doi:10.1111/cen.13065.

Rovet JF. The role of thyroid hormones for brain development and cognitive function. Endocr Development. 2014; 26– 43.

Glineor D. The regulation of thyroid function during normal pregnancy: importance of the iodine nutrition status. Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2004; 18: 133–152.

Smyth PP. Dietary iodine intake in pregnancy. Irish Med. J. 2006; 99: 103.

Zimmermann M, Delange F. Iodine supplementation of pregnant women in Europe: a review and recommendations. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 2004; 58: 979– 984.

Anderson M et al. Iodine deficiency in Europe: a continuing public health problem. WHO, Geneva 2007.

Zimmermann MB, Jooste PL, Pandav CS. Iodine-deficiency disorders. Lancet. 2008;372(9645):1251-1262. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61005-3.

Zimmermann MB. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy and the effects of maternal supplementation on the offspring. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2009; 89 (suppl): 668S–672S.

Karowicz-Bilińska A, Nowak-Markwitz E, Opala T, Oszukowski P, Poręba R, Spaczyński M. Rekomendacje Polskiego Towarzystwa Ginekologicznego w zakresie stosowania witamin i mikroelementów u kobiet planujących ciążę, ciężarnych i karmiących. [Recommendations of the Polish Gynecological Society on the use of vitamins and microelements in women planning pregnancy, pregnant and lactating women]. Ginekol Pol. 2014(5), 85, 395-399.

Public Health Committee of the American Thyroid Association, Becker DV, Braverman LE, et al. Iodine supplementation for pregnancy and lactation-United States and Canada: recommendations of the American Thyroid Association. Thyroid. 2006;16(10):949-951. doi:10.1089/thy.2006.16.949Pearce E.N.

Pearce EN. What Do We Know about Iodine Supplementation in Pregnancy? The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2009; 3188–3190,

Bernal J. Thyroid Hormones in Brain Development and Function. Endotext [Internet]. South Dartmouth (MA):, Inc.; 2000-. Available from:

Szybiński Z. Work of the Polish Council for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders, and the model of iodine prophylaxis in Poland. Polish Journal of Endocrinology. 2012(2):63; 156-160.

Hubalewska-Dydejczyk A, Lewiński A, Milewicz A, Radowicki S, Poręba R, et al. Postępowanie w chorobach tarczycy u kobiet w ciąży [Management of thyroid diseases during pregnancy]. Polish Journal of Endocrinology. 2011(4); 62: 362-381.

Gietka-Czernel M, Dębska M, Kretowicz P et al. Iodine status of pregnant women from central Poland 10 years after introduction of iodine prophylaxis program. Endokrynol Pol — Polish J Endocrinol. 2010; 61: 646–651.

Henjum S, Brantsæter AL, Kurniasari A, Dahl L, Aadland EK, et al. Suboptimal Iodine Status and Low Iodine Knowledge in Young Norwegian Women. Nutrients. 2018;10(7):941.

Kucharczyk M, Stanjek-Cichoracka A, Kochańska-Dziurowicz A, Bijak A. Ocena jodurii u studentek wydziału farmaceutycznego. [The assessment of ioduria among students of the Faculty of Pharmacy]. Medycyna Środowiskowa - Environmental Medicine. 2012; 15(3):66-71.

Bath SC, Furmidge-Owen VL, Redman CWg, et al. Gestational changes in iodine status in a cohort study of pregnant women from the United King¬dom: season as an effect modifier. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015; 101(6): 1180– 1187, doi: 10.3945/ajcn.114.105536, indexed in Pubmed: 25948667.

Fall C, Yajnik C, Rao S, et al. Micronutrients and Fetal Growth. J Nutr. 2003; 133(5 Suppl 2): 1747S–1756S, doi: 10.1093/ jn/133.5.1747s, indexed in Pubmed: 12730494.

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

Journal of Education, Health and Sport formerly Journal of Health Sciences

Declaration on the original version.

Editors indicates that the main version of the magazine is to issue a "electronic".

The journal has had 5 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. § 8. 2) and § 12. 1. 2) 22.02.2019.

1223 Journal of Education, Health and Sport eISSN 2391-8306 7

ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

Archives 2011 - 2014

PBN 2011 - 2014

POL-index 2011 - 2014

BASE 2011 - 2014

Indexed in Bases, Bazy indeksacyjne: ERIH Plus, Worldcat, PBN/POL-Index, ICI Journals Master List, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), ZBD, Ulrich's periodicals, Google Scholar, Polska Bibliografia Lekarska, EuroPub database, NLM Catalog Result - NCBI, BASE, Russian Sciences Index, Arianta.

US NLM = 101679844

101679844 - NLM Catalog Result - NCBI

Find a library that holds this journal:


PBN Poland



Redaction, Publisher and Editorial Office

Publisher and Editorial Office
Department of Physical Culture,
Faculty of Earth Sciences and Spatial Management,
Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Poland
Address: Str. Lwowska 1, 87-100 Toruń, Poland

  Open Access ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

The journal has been approved for inclusion in ERIH PLUS.

The ERIH PLUS listing of the journal is available at

Indexed in Index Copernicus Journals Master List.,p24782242,3.html

ICV 2018 = 95.95 ICV 2017 = 91.30 ICV 2016 = 84.69 ICV 2015 = 93.34 ICV 2014 = 89.51 Standardized Value: 8.27 ICV 2013: 7.32 ICV 2012: 6.41 ICV 20115.48

RG Journal Impact: 0.18 *

*This value is calculated using ResearchGate data and is based on average citation counts from work published in this journal. The data used in the calculation may not be exhaustive.

RG Journal impact history

2020Available summer 2021
2018 / 20190.18

RG Journal impact over time

RG Journal impact

Indexed in Polish Scholarly Bibliography (PBN) (PBN Polska Bibliografia Naukowa) (

is a portal of the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education, collecting information on publications of Polish scientists and on Polish and foreign scholarly journals. Polish Scholarly Bibliograhpy is a part of POL-on - System of Information on Higher Education. It is operated by the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, University of Warsaw.

Indexed in Russian Sciences Index Российский индекс научного цитирования (РИНЦ)

Indexed in Arianta Polish scientific and professional electronic journals Aneta Drabek i Arkadiusz Pulikowski


Partnerzy platformy czasopism