Analysis of evidence in forensic medicine. Validation of the test method as a tool to control parameters determining the reliability of the analysis results

Angelika Szczęśniak, Natalia Serwin, Elżbieta Cecerska-Heryć, Anna Stangret, Agata Mularczyk, Konrad Grzeszczak, Katarzyna Topczewska



Currently, forensic research foundation is comprised of the methods of genetic analysis. The study of DNA polymorphism became a source of highly reliable evidence, which allow the determination of the genetic profile of biological traces containing genetic material of barely a few cells, collected from all possible substrates, and their further comparison with the genetic profile of the victim or suspect. The forensic expertise of such research, supported by relevant statistical calculations is one of the few objective evidence in criminal proceedings.

The process of DNA testing for forensic purposes is composed of several stages and a number of analyzes. After securing suitable test specimen, the isolation of genetic material is performed. For the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the isolate, the Real Time PCR reaction is performed. This is a crucial moment for the study because it is the assessment of the suitability of samples for further testing. The next step is the amplification of DNA fragments with Multiplex PCR technique. Then, as a result of electrophoretic separation of the sequencer we obtain a genetic profile. Thus obtained profiling results are interpreted as well as compared by specialists.

For analysts in the field of forensic medicine it is necessary to obtain clear genetic profiles. Given the often small amount of DNA that can be obtained and the need for unquestionability of the evidence, it is very important to develop a method with high sensitivity, which allows to obtain completely reliable results. In order to ensure the quality of the research, forensic laboratories must apply the standards and guidelines set by international associations, periodically calibrate their testing equipment, keep complete records of the results and, above all, to validate the used methods. In the laboratory, which intends to apply the procedure in question, internal validation must be carried out. The aim of this process is to determine the reliability and limitations of the method. During the test, the results of manufacturers’ verification are validated and the level of efficiency of the said procedure within a particular lab is checked.


DNA; forensic; genetic; Real Time PCR; Multiplex PCR; analysis; validation

Full Text:

PDF (Polish)


Branicki W., Kupiec T., Wolańska-Nowak P., Proces analizy DNA dla celów sądowych, Badanie DNA do celów sądowych, Red. Branicki W., Wydawnictwo Instytutu Ekspertyz Sądowych, Kraków 2008, s. 15-23.

Andréasson H, Gyllensten U, Allen M. Real-time DNA quantification of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA in forensic analysis, Biotechniques, 08/2002, 33(2):402-4, 407-11.

Żaba C., Wybrane zagadnienia z medycyny sądowej, Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu Medycznego im. Karola Marcinkowskiego w Poznaniu, Poznań 2014, s. 73-95.

Schiffner L. A., Bajda E. J., Prinz M., Sebestyen J., Shaler R., Caragine T. A.: Optimalization of a simple, automatable extraction method of recover sufficient DNA from low copy number DNA samples for generation of short tandem repeats profile. Croat, M J. 2005, 46: 578-586.

Ferguson E., Effects of pH on Binding of DNA Using the PrepFiler BTA Forensic DNA Extraction Kit on the AutoMate Express Forensic DNA Extraction System, Master of Science, 05/2014, 1-9.

Ciesielska A., Sikorski M., Zastosowanie techniki PCR w czasie rzeczywistym do walidacji eksperymentu mikromacierzowego, Instytut Chemii Bioorganicznej, Polska Akademia Nauk, Poznań 2008.

Łaczmański Ł., Łaczmańska I., Walidacja metod molekularnych przeznaczonych do laboratoryjnej diagnostyki genetycznej, Katedra i Klinika Endokrynologii, Diabetologii i Leczenia Izotopami, Katedra i Zakład Genetyki, Akademia Medyczna we Wrocławiu, 2009.

Tysarowski A., Fabisiewicz A., Kolasa I., Kupryjańczyk J., Ścieglińska D., Rusin M., Krawczyk Z., Woźniak A. , Morzuch L., Limon J., Kowalczuk O., Chyczewski L., Wójcik P., Stachura J., Wieruszewska-Kowalczyk K., Pokrzepa M., Olszewski W., Nowacki M., Siedlecki J., Walidacja wybranych technik molekularnych oznaczania mutacji w kodonie 12 i 13 genu K-RAS przeprowadzona w pięciu ośrodkach badawczo-naukowych Polski, Onkologia w Praktyce Klinicznej, 2008.

Ragsdale R., Internal Validation, Florida Department of Law Enforcement (FDLE), 08/2005 at NFSTC.

Spólnicka M., Zbieć - Piekarska R. Proces walidacji w kryminalistycznych badaniach profilowania DNA. Problemy Kryminalistyki. 2008, 262, 5-13.

Spólnicka M., Zbieć-Piekarska R., Wewnętrzna walidacja metody kwantyfikacji DNA z wykorzystaniem zestawu Quantifiler® Human DNA Quantification Kit i aparatu 7500 Real-Time PCR System wraz z oprogramowaniem Hid Real-Time PCR Analysis Software V 1.1 w Zakładzie Biologii Centralnego Laboratorium Kryminalistycznego Policji, Problemy Kryminalistyki, 2014.

Dąbrowska J., Makowska Ż., Spólnicka M, Szabłowska-Gnap E., Najczęstsze zjawiska występujące podczas analizy profili DNA w multipleksowych systemach STR, Problemy Kryminalistyki, 2013.

Green RL, Roinestad IC, Boland C, Hennessy LK. Developmental validation of the quantifiler real-time PCR kits for the quantification of human nuclear DNA samples, J Forensic Sci, 07/2005, 50(4):809-25.

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

Journal of Education, Health and Sport formerly Journal of Health Sciences

Declaration on the original version.

Editors indicates that the main version of the magazine is to issue a "electronic".

The journal has had 5 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. § 8. 2) and § 12. 1. 2) 22.02.2019.

1223 Journal of Education, Health and Sport eISSN 2391-8306 7

ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

Archives 2011 - 2014

PBN 2011 - 2014

POL-index 2011 - 2014

BASE 2011 - 2014

Indexed in Bases, Bazy indeksacyjne: ERIH Plus, Worldcat, PBN/POL-Index, ICI Journals Master List, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), ZBD, Ulrich's periodicals, Google Scholar, Polska Bibliografia Lekarska, EuroPub database, NLM Catalog Result - NCBI, BASE, Russian Sciences Index, Arianta.

US NLM = 101679844

101679844 - NLM Catalog Result - NCBI

Find a library that holds this journal:


PBN Poland



Redaction, Publisher and Editorial Office

Publisher and Editorial Office
Department of Physical Culture,
Faculty of Earth Sciences and Spatial Management,
Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Poland
Address: Str. Lwowska 1, 87-100 Toruń, Poland

  Open Access ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

The journal has been approved for inclusion in ERIH PLUS.

The ERIH PLUS listing of the journal is available at

Indexed in Index Copernicus Journals Master List.,p24782242,3.html

ICV 2019 = 100.00 ICV 2018 = 95.95 ICV 2017 = 91.30 ICV 2016 = 84.69 ICV 2015 = 93.34 ICV 2014 = 89.51 Standardized Value: 8.27 ICV 2013: 7.32 ICV 2012: 6.41 ICV 20115.48

RG Journal Impact: 0.18 *

*This value is calculated using ResearchGate data and is based on average citation counts from work published in this journal. The data used in the calculation may not be exhaustive.

RG Journal impact history

2020Available summer 2021
2018 / 20190.18

RG Journal impact over time

RG Journal impact

Indexed in Polish Scholarly Bibliography (PBN) (PBN Polska Bibliografia Naukowa) (

is a portal of the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education, collecting information on publications of Polish scientists and on Polish and foreign scholarly journals. Polish Scholarly Bibliograhpy is a part of POL-on - System of Information on Higher Education. It is operated by the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, University of Warsaw.

Indexed in Russian Sciences Index Российский индекс научного цитирования (РИНЦ)

Indexed in Arianta Polish scientific and professional electronic journals Aneta Drabek i Arkadiusz Pulikowski


Partnerzy platformy czasopism