Detection of carbonates in water softeners

Kinga Andrusiewicz, Mirella Czapska, Barbara Nieradko-Iwanicka

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12775/JEHS.2020.10.06.008

Abstract


The skin is one of the most important and the largest organ of human body. Skin hygiene requires use of water. Water can be hard. Hard water effectively hinders the washing process. The purpose of the work is to detect carbonates in bath salts and water softeners. Materials and methods A total of 80 samples were collected: micellar fluids-5, tonics-6, shampoos-17, shower gels-6, bath salts-13, soaps-11, washing gels-6, softeners-3, washing capsules-3, washing powders-4, dishwasher tablets-5, bathwatercolour-1. One gram of test substance was added to 10 cm3 of distilled water,heated until the precipitate dissolved and poured into a tube. A few drops of 3 mol / dm3 H2SO4 were added. The evolution of gas bubbles indicated the presence of carbonates. In our experiment we have found the presence of bicarbonate only in effervescent tablets for baby baths, Salt Iwonicka and in bathing balls. Conclusions: Not all products containing "bath salt" contain bicarbonate. Budget bath salts in the composition have sodium chloride or sodium lauryl sulphate, but they do not contain bicarbonate. Micellar liquids, shower gels, face wash gels, soaps, shampoos, powders and liquids for washing and rinsing fabrics, dishwasher products do not contain carbonates. The most bicarbonate salt contains Iwonicka Salt. Detergents such as washing powders, washing liquids and fabric rinses and dishwasher products contain phosphonates, which give off abundant foam.

Keywords


carbonates; water softeners; hard water; skin

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