Servant Leadership in the Last Decade : A Systematic Review

Umaru Mustapha Zubairu

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12775/32340

Abstract


As the world grapples with the effects of the Corona Virus pandemic, the importance of leadership at all levels of an organization has been brought into the sharp focus. Servant leadership is a philosophy that advocates that the primary focus of leaders is to serve their followers, and such a philosophy in theory could be important during these troubling times. Using the Systematic Quantitative Assessment Technique, this study conducted a systematic review of 179 servant leadership (SL) articles published over the last decade (2010–2019) to provide insight as to the efficacy of this leadership style in inspiring followers to give their best efforts. Besides this primary objective, this review also sought to understand the time distribution, geographic distribution, types and data collection methods of these SL articles. Review of empirical evidence revealed that SL was very effective in inspiring followers to go above and beyond in helping to achieve an organization’s objectives. The review also revealed that over the last decade, interest in SL has grown from year to year, with most of the research in Asia and North America. Furthermore, most SL research has been empirical in nature, with surveys being the favoured means of data collection. There has been a dearth of qualitative studies in extant SL scholarship, and this represents a significant gap which future researchers should endeavour to address.

Keywords


servant leadership; Systematic Quantitative Assessment Technique; review

References


Abu Bakar, H., & McCann, R. M. (2016). The mediating effect of leader–member dyadic communication style agreement on the relationship between servant leadership and group-level organizational citizenship behavior. Management Communication Quarterly, 30(1), 32–58.

Abu Bakar, H., & McCann, R. M. (2018). An examination of leader-member dyadic politeness of exchange and servant leadership on group member performance. International Journal of Business Communication, 55(4), 501–525.

Afsar, B., Cheema, S. & Javed, F. (2017). Activating employee’s pro‐environmental behaviors: The role of CSR, organizational identification, and environmentally specific servant leadership. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 25(5), 904–911.

Akbari, M., Bahrami-Rad, D. & Kimbrough, E. O. (2019). Kinship, fractionalization and corruption. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 166, 493–528.

Al-Asadi, R., Muhammed, S., Abidi, O. & Dzenopoljac, V. (2019). Impact of servant leadership on intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 40(4), 472–484.

Alazzani, A., Aljanadi, Y. & Shreim, O. (2019). The impact of existence of royal family directors on corporate social responsibility reporting: A servant leadership perspective. Social Responsibility Journal. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1108/SRJ-07–2017–0138.

Allen, S., Winston, B. E., Tatone, G. R., & Crowson, H. M. (2018). Exploring a model of servant leadership, empowerment, and commitment in nonprofit organizations. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 29(1), 123–140.

Al-Mahdy, Y. F., Al-Harthi, A. S., & Salah El-Din, N. S. (2016). Perceptions of school principals’ servant leadership and their teachers’ job satisfaction in Oman. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 15(4), 543–566.

Amah, O. E. (2018). Determining the antecedents and outcomes of servant leadership. Journal of General Management, 43(3), 126–138.

Andersen, J. A. (2018). Servant leadership and transformational leadership: From comparisons to farewells. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 39(6), 762–774.

Andre & Lantu, D. C. (2015). Servant leadership and human capital management: Case study in Citibank Indonesia. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 169, 303–311.

Arain, G. A., Hameed, I., & Crawshaw, J. R. (2019). Servant leadership and follower voice: The roles of follower felt responsibility for constructive change and

avoidance-approach motivation. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 28(4), 555–565.

Arminen, H., & Menegaki, A. N. (2019). Corruption, climate and the energy-environment-growth nexus. Energy Economics, 80, 621–634.

Babakus, E., Yavas, U., & Ashill, N. J. (2010). Service worker burnout and turnover intentions: Roles of person-job fit, servant leadership, and customer orientation. Services Marketing Quarterly, 32(1), 17–31.

Bande, B., Fernández-Ferrín, P., Varela-Neira, C., & Otero-Neira, C. (2016). Exploring the relationship among servant leadership, intrinsic motivation and performance in an industrial sales setting. Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing, 31(2), 219–231.

Barbuto Jr, J. E., Gottfredson, R. K., & Searle, T. P. (2014). An examination of emotional intelligence as an antecedent of servant leadership. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 21(3), 315–323.

Bauer, T. N., Perrot, S., Liden, R. C., & Erdogan, B. (2019). Understanding the consequences of newcomer proactive behaviors: The moderating contextual role of servant leadership. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 112, 356–368.

Bavik, A., Bavik, Y. L., & Tang, P. M. (2017). Servant leadership, employee job crafting, and citizenship behaviors: A cross-level investigation. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 58(4), 364–373.

Beck, C. D. (2014). Antecedents of servant leadership: A mixed methods study. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 21(3), 299–314.

Bobbio, A., Dierendonck, D. V., & Manganelli, A. M. (2012). Servant leadership in Italy and its relation to organizational variables. Leadership, 8(3), 229–243.

Boldbaatar, D., Kunz, N. C., & Werker, E. (2019). Improved resource governance through transparency: Evidence from Mongolia. The Extractive Industries and Society, 6(3), 775–787.

Brohi, N. A., Jantan, A. H., Qureshi, M. A., Bin Jaffar, A. R., Bin Ali, J., & Bin Ab Hamid, K. (2018). The impact of servant leadership on employees attitudinal and behavioural outcomes. Cogent Business and Management, 5(1), 1542652.

Brown, D. A., Brown, D. L., & Yocum, C. K. (2012). Planning a pharmacy-led medical mission trip, part 2: Servant leadership and team dynamics. Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 46(6), 895–900.

Burton, L., & Peachey, J.W. (2013). The call for servant leadership in intercollegiate athletics. Quest, 65(3), 354–371.

Carter, D., & Baghurst, T. (2014). The influence of servant leadership on restaurant employee engagement. Journal of Business Ethics, 124(3), 453–464.

Cerit, Y. (2010). The effects of servant leadership on teachers’ organizational commitment in primary schools in Turkey. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 13(3), 301–317.

Chan, S. C., & Mak, W. M. (2014). The impact of servant leadership and subordinates’ organizational tenure on trust in leader and attitudes. Personnel Review, 43(2), 272–287.

Chen, C. Y., Chen, C. H. V., & Li, C. I. (2011). The influence of leader’s spiritual values of servant leadership on employee motivational autonomy and eudaemonic well-being. Journal of Religion and Health, 52(2), 418–438.

Chiniara, M., & Bentein, K. (2016). Linking servant leadership to individual performance: Differentiating the mediating role of autonomy, competence and relatedness need satisfaction. The Leadership Quarterly, 27(1), 124–141.

Chiniara, M., & Bentein, K. (2018). The servant leadership advantage: When perceiving low differentiation in leader-member relationship quality influences team cohesion, team task performance and service OCB. The Leadership Quarterly, 29(2), 333–345.

Choudhary, A. I., Akhtar, S. A., & Zaheer, A. (2013).

Impact of transformational and servant leadership on organizational performance: A comparative analysis. Journal of Business Ethics, 116(2), 433–440.

Chughtai, A. A. (2016). Servant leadership and follower outcomes: Mediating effects of organizational identification and psychological safety. The Journal of Psychology, 150(7), 866–880.

Chughtai, A. A. (2018). Examining the effects of servant leadership on life satisfaction. Applied Research in Quality of Life, 13(4), 873–889.

Chughtai, A. (2019). Servant leadership and perceived employability: Proactive career behaviours as mediators. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 40(2), 213–229.

Contreras, F. (2016). Servant and spiritual leadership theories: Are they two different notions? Journal of Human Values, 22(3), 202–208.

Crippen, C. (2017). A case study of servant leadership in the NHL. Interchange, 48(2), 205–216.

Davenport, B. (2014). Compassion, suffering and servant-leadership: Combining compassion and servant-leadership to respond to suffering. Leadership, 11(3), 300–315.

Duhé, S. (2014). The art of servant leadership: Designing your organization for the sake of others. Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 19(4), 405–411.

Ebener, D. R., & O’Connell, D. J. (2010). How might servant leadership work? Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 20(3), 315–335.

Erdurmazlı, E. (2019). On the servant leadership behaviors perceived in voluntary settings: The influences on volunteers’ motivation and organizational commitment. SAGE Open, 9(3), 1–17.

Eva, N., Sendjaya, S., Prajogo, D., Cavanagh, A., & Robin, M. (2018). Creating strategic fit: Aligning servant leadership with organizational structure and strategy. Personnel Review, 47(1), 166–186.

Farrington, S. M., & Lillah, R. (2018). Servant leadership and job satisfaction within private healthcare practices. Leadership in Health Services, 32(1), 148–168.

Flynn, C. B., Smither, J. W., & Walker, A. G. (2015). Exploring the relationship between leaders’ core self-evaluations and subordinates’ perceptions of servant leadership: A field study. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 23(3), 260–271.

Frémeaux, S., & Pavageau, B. (2020). Meaningful leadership: How can leaders contribute to meaningful work?. Journal of Management Inquiry. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1177/1056492619897126

Fulton, C. L., & Shannonhouse, L. (2014). Developing servant leadership through counselor community engagement: A case example. Journal of Counselor Leadership and Advocacy, 1(1), 98–111.

Giambatista, R., McKeage, R., & Brees, J. (2020). Cultures of servant leadership and their impact. The Journal of Values-Based Leadership, 13(1), 12–28.

Gillet, J., Cartwright, E., & Van Vugt, M. (2011). Selfish or servant leadership? Evolutionary predictions on leadership personalities in coordination games. Personality and Individual Differences, 51(3), 231–236.

Grisaffe, D. B., VanMeter, R., & Chonko, L. B. (2016). Serving first for the benefit of others: Preliminary evidence for a hierarchical conceptualization of servant leadership. Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, 36(1), 40–58.

Han, Y., Kakabadse, N. K., & Kakabadse, A. (2010). Servant leadership in the People’s Republic of China: A case study of the public sector. Journal of Management Development, 29(30), 265–281.

Harris, P. N., Hockaday, M. S. & McCall, M. H. (2017). Black girls matter: Counseling black females through a servant leadership framework. Professional School Counseling, 21(1b), 1–13.

Harris, S. J., Metzger, M. L., & Duening, T. N. (2020). Innovation in national governing bodies of sport: investigating dynamic capabilities that drive growth. European Sport Management Quarterly, 1–22.

Harwiki, W. (2016). The impact of servant leadership on organization culture, organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB) and employee performance in women cooperatives. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 219(1), 283–290.

Hsiao, C., Lee, Y. H., & Chen, W. J. (2015). The effect of servant leadership on customer value co-creation: A cross-level analysis of key mediating roles. Tourism Management, 49, 45–57.

Huang, J., Li, W., Qiu, C., Yim, F. H. K., & Wan, J. (2016). The impact of CEO servant leadership on firm performance in the hospitality industry. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 28(5), 945–968.

Hwang, H. J., Kang, M., & Youn, M. K. (2014). The influence of a leader’s servant leadership on employees’ perception of customers’ satisfaction with the service and employees’ perception of customers’ trust in the service firm: The moderating role of employees’ trust in the leader. Journal of Global Scholars of Marketing Science, 24(1), 65–76.

Jenkins, S. (2014). John R. Wooden, Stephen R. Covey and Servant Leadership. International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 9(1), 1–24.

Jit, R., Sharma, C. S., & Kawatra, M. (2017). Healing a broken spirit: Role of servant leadership. Vikalpa, 42(2), 80–94.

Joseph, J. J., & Gandolfi, F. (2020). Empowering students for social justice through a critical pedagogy inspired framework of servant leadership. Pedagogy, Culture & Society, 1–16.

Kashyap, V., & Rangnekar, S. (2014). Servant leadership, employer brand perception, trust in leaders and turnover intentions: a sequential mediation model. Review of Managerial Science, 10(3), 437–461.

Koyuncu, M., Burke, R. J., Astakhova, M., Eren, D., & Cetin, H. (2014). Servant leadership and perceptions of service quality provided by front-line service workers in hotels in Turkey. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 26(7), 1083–1099.

Krumrei-Mancuso, E. J. (2018). Humility in servant leadership among Christian student leaders: A longitudinal pilot study. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 46(4), 253–267.

Lee, A., Legood, A., Hughes, D., Tian, A. W., Newman, A., & Knight, C. (2020). Leadership, creativity and innovation: A meta-analytic review. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 29(1), 1–35.

Lee, Y. H. (2018). Emotional intelligence, servant leadership, and development goal orientation in athletic directors. Sport Management Review, 22(3), 395–406.

Lemoine, G. J., & Blum, T. C. (2019). Servant leadership, leader gender, and team gender role: Testing a female advantage in a cascading model of performance. Personnel Psychology. Retrieved from doi:10.1111/peps.12379

Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., Meuser, J. D., Hu, J., Wu, J., & Liao, C. (2015). Servant leadership: Validation of a short form of the SL-28. The Leadership Quarterly, 26(2), 254–269.

Linuesa-Langreo, J., Ruiz-Palomino, P., & Elche-Hortelano, D. (2018). Integrating servant leadership into managerial strategy to build group social capital: The mediating role of group citizenship behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 152(4), 899–916.

Lumpkin, A., & Achen, R. M. (2018). Explicating the synergies of self‐determination theory, ethical leadership, servant leadership, and emotional intelligence. Journal of Leadership Studies, 12(1), 6–20.

Luu, T. T. (2020). Integrating green strategy and green human resource practices to trigger individual and organizational green performance: The role of environmentally-specific servant leadership. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 28(8), 1193–1222.

Megheirkouni, M. (2018). Insights on practicing of servant leadership in the events sector. Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, 8(2), 134–152.

Megheirkouni, M. (2020). Psychological contract, leadership, and job satisfaction: an empirical investigation into the non-profit sports sector. Annals of Leisure Research, 1–24.

Meixner, C. (2010). Reconciling self, servant leadership, and learning: The Journey to the East as locus for reflection and transformation. Journal of Leadership Studies, 3(4), 81–85.

Mittal, R., & Dorfman, P. W. (2012). Servant leadership across cultures. Journal of World Business, 47(4), 555–570.

Mustard, R. W. (2019). Servant leadership in the Veterans Health Administration. Nurse Leader. Retrieved from doi:10.1016/j.mnl.2019.03.019

Newman, A., Neesham, C., Manville, G., & Tse, H. H. (2018). Examining the influence of servant and entrepreneurial leadership on the work outcomes of employees in social enterprises. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 29(20), 2905–2926.

Oner, Z. H. (2012). Servant leadership and paternalistic leadership styles in the Turkish business context. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 33(3), 300–316.

Parris, D. L., & Peachey, J. W. (2013). Encouraging servant leadership: A qualitative study of how a cause-related sporting event inspires participants to serve. Leadership, 9(4), 486–512.

Pekerti, A. A., & Sendjaya, S. (2010). Exploring servant leadership across cultures: Comparative study in Australia and Indonesia. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 21(5), 754–780.

Peterson, S. J., Galvin, B. M., & Lange, D. (2012). CEO servant leadership: Exploring executive characteristics and firm performance. Personnel Psychology, 65(3), 565–596.

Pickering, C., & Byrne, J. (2014). The benefits of publishing systematic quantitative literature reviews for PhD candidates and other early-career researchers. Higher Education Research and Development, 33(3), 534–548.

Politis, J., & Politis, D. (2018). Examination of the relationship between servant leadership and agency problems: Gender matters. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 39(2), 170–185.

Popa, A. B. (2012). Learning about hardiness and servant leadership by accompanying refugees at a united nations resettlement camp. Journal of Leadership Studies, 6(1), 72–78.

Ragnarsson, S., Kristjánsdóttir, E. S., & Gunnarsdóttir, S. (2018). To be accountable while showing care: The lived experience of people in a servant leadership organization. SAGE Open, 8(3), 1–12.

Reed, L. L., Vidaver-Cohen, D., & Colwell, S. R. (2011). A new scale to measure executive servant leadership: Development, analysis, and implications for research. Journal of Business Ethics, 101(3), 415–434.

Rivkin, W., Diestel, S., & Schmidt, K. H. (2014). The positive relationship between servant leadership and employees’ psychological health: A multi-method approach. German Journal of Human Resource Management, 28(1–2), 52–72.

Robert K. Greenleaf Centre for Servant Leadership (2016). The Servant as Leader. Retrieved from https://www.greenleaf.org/what-is-servant-leadership/

Ruwhiu, D., & Elkin, G. (2016). Converging pathways of contemporary leadership: In the footsteps of Māori and servant leadership. Leadership, 12(3), 308–323.

Samuel, A., White, G. R. T., Martin, H., & Rowling, M. (2018). Influencing Fairtrade consumption through servant leadership: Bruce Crowther’s story. Society and Business Review, 13(2), 170–183.

Schwarz, G., Newman, A., Cooper, B., & Eva, N. (2016). Servant leadership and follower job performance: The mediating effect of public service motivation. Public Administration, 94(4), 1025–1041.

Sendjaya, S., & Cooper, B. (2011). Servant leadership behaviour scale: A hierarchical model and test of construct validity. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 20(3), 416–436.

Shim, D. C., & Park, H. H. (2018). Public service motivation in a work group: Role of ethical climate and servant leadership. Public Personnel Management, 48(2), 203–225.

Sihombing, S., Astuti, E. S., Al Musadieq, M., Hamied, D., & Rahardjo, K. (2018). The effect of servant leadership on rewards, organizational culture and its implication for employee’s performance. International Journal of Law and Management, 60(2), 505–516.

Slack, N. J., Singh, G., Narayan, J., & Sharma, S. (2019). Servant leadership in the public sector: Employee perspective. Public Organization Review, 1–16.

Song, J. (2019). Understanding face and shame: A servant-leadership and face management model. Journal of Pastoral Care & Counseling, 73(1), 19–29.

Sorace, S. (2020). Saudi Arabia closes its borders to air, sea travel amid coronavirus. Retrieved from https://www.foxnews.com/world/coronavirus -saudi-arabia-closes-borders-air-sea-travel

Sovacool, B. K., & Walter, G. (2019). Internationalizing the political economy of hydroelectricity: Security, development and sustainability in hydropower states. Review of International Political Economy, 26(1), 49–79.

Stewart, T. (2012). Classroom teacher leadership: Service-learning for teacher sense of efficacy and servant leadership development. School Leadership and Management, 32(3), 233–259.

Stoten, D. W. (2013). Servant leadership in English sixth form colleges: What do teachers tell us? International Journal of Educational Management, 27(4), 377–386.

Suárez-Alemán, A., Serebrisky, T., & Perelman, S. (2019). Benchmarking economic infrastructure efficiency: How does the Latin America and Caribbean region compare?. Utilities Policy, 58, 1–15.

Terosky, A. L., & Reitano, M. C. (2016). Putting followers first: The role of servant leadership in cases of urban, public school principals. Journal of School Leadership, 26(2), 192–222.

Tuan, L. T. (2016). How servant leadership nurtures knowledge sharing. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 29(1), 91–108.

Tuan, L. T. (2020). Environmentally-specific servant leadership and green creativity among tourism employees: Dual mediation paths. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 28(1), 86–109.

Upadyaya, K., & Salmela-Aro, K. (2020). Social demands and resources predict job burnout and engagement profiles among Finnish employees. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 1–13.

van Dierendonck, D., & Nuijten, I. (2011). The servant leadership survey: Development and validation of a multidimensional measure. Journal of Business and Psychology, 26(3), 249–267.

van Dierendonck, D., Stam, D., Boersma, P., De Windt, N., & Alkema, J. (2013). Same difference? Exploring the differential mechanisms linking servant leadership and transformational leadership to follower outcomes. The Leadership Quarterly, 25(3), 544–562.

van Dierendonck, D., & Patterson, K. (2015). Compassionate love as a cornerstone of servant leadership: An integration of previous theorizing and research. Journal of Business Ethics, 128(1), 119–131.

VanMeter, R., Chonko, L. B., Grisaffe, D. B., & Goad, E. A. (2016). In search of clarity on servant leadership: Domain specification and reconceptualization. AMS Review, 6(1–2), 59–78.

Veas, G., & Veas, K. (2018). Parents as mentors: Addressing contemporary childrearing through a servant leadership philosophy and the application of mentorship mottos. Christian Education Journal, 15(3), 390–407.

Verdorfer, A. P. (2016). Examining mindfulness and its relations to humility, motivation to lead, and actual servant leadership behaviors. Mindfulness, 7(4), 950–961.

Walsh, N.P., Shelley, J., Duwe, E., & Bonnett, W. (2020). Bolsonaro calls coronavirus a ‘little flu’. Inside Brazil’s hospitals, doctors know the horrifying reality. Retrieved from https://edition.cnn.com/2020/05/23/americas/brazil-coronavirus-hospitals-intl/index.html

Windsor, D. (2019). Influencing MNC strategies for managing corruption and favouritism in Pacific Asia countries: A multiple-theory configurational perspective. Asia Pacific Business Review, 25(4), 501–533.

Winston, B., & Fields, D. (2015). Seeking and measuring the essential behaviors of servant leadership. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 36(4), 413–434.

World Health Organization (2020). WHO Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) Dashboard. Retrieved from https://covid19.who.int/

Xu, L., Stewart, T., & Haber-Curran, P. (2015). Measurement invariance of the Servant Leadership Questionnaire across K-12 principal gender. School Leadership and Management, 35(2), 202–214.

Yang, Z., Zhang, H., Kwan, H. K., & Chen, S. (2018). Crossover effects of servant leadership and job social support on employee spouses: The mediating role of employee organization-based self-esteem. Journal of Business Ethics, 147(3), 595–604.

Ye, Y., Lyu, Y., & He, Y. (2019). Servant leadership and proactive customer service performance. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. Retrieved from doi:10.1108/ijchm-03–2018–0180.

Zhang, Y., Lin, T., & Fong Foo, S. (2012). Servant leadership: A preferred style of school leadership in Singapore. Chinese Management Studies, 6(2), 369–383.

Zhu, C., & Zhang, F. (2019). How does servant leadership fuel employee innovative behavior? A moderated mediation framework. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1111/1744–7941.12227

Zoghbi-Manrique-de-Lara, P., & Ruiz-Palomino, P. (2019). How servant leadership creates and accumulates social capital personally owned in hotel firms. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 31(8), 3192–3211.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


p-ISSN 2392-2680
e-ISSN 2392-2699

Partnerzy platformy czasopism