Divine Wrath in Ancient Egypt

Amgad Joseph

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12775/EtudTrav.31.003


This article aims at examining the theme of divine wrath according to Egyptian religious beliefs, in connection with deities and worshippers. It is a matter of theological concern to examine the theme of divine wrath in various texts describing the rage of deities. The paper thoroughly discusses the theme of divine wrath, its addressees, effects, purposes, provocations, and the possibility of avoidance and pacification, as well as the linguistic expressions of wrath. It discusses the notion of wrath, its perceived consequences and infliction on the deities, living humans and the deceased. It also examines divine wrath in relation to the experience of suffering and affliction as well as that of protection and welfare. The analysis provides information on the core of the Egyptian religion investigated from the perspective of wrath.

Słowa kluczowe

ancient Egypt; divine wrath; religion; mythology

Pełny tekst:



Allen, J. 2005: The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts, Atlanta

Allen, J. 2010: Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs, Cambridge-New York

Allen, J. 2015: Middle Egyptian Literature: Eight Literary Works of the Middle Kingdom, Cambridge

Allen, T. 1974: The Book of the Dead or Going Forth by Day. Ideas of the Ancient Egyptians concerning the Hereafter as Expressed in Their Own Terms, SAOC 37, Chicago

Andrews, C. 1994: Amulets of Ancient Egypt, London

Assmann, J. 1975: Ägyptische Hymnen und Gebete. Eingeleitet, übersetzt und erläutert, Die Bibliothek der alten Welt, Zürich

Assmann, J. 1983: Sonnenhymnen in Thebanischen Gräbern, Theben 1, Mainz a/Rhein

Assmann, J. 1989: State and Religion in the New Kingdom, [in:] Simpson, W.K. (Ed.), Religion and Philosophy in Ancient Egypt, YES 3, New Haven, 55–88

Assmann, J. 1995: Egyptian Solar Religion in the New Kingdom. Re, Amun and the Crisis of Polytheism, London-New York

Assmann, J. 2001: The Search for God in Ancient Egypt, Ithaca-London

Assmann, J. 2003: The Mind of Egypt. History and Meaning in the Time of the Pharaohs, Cambridge-London

Aufrère, S. 1991: L’univers minéral dans la pensée égyptienne 1–2, BiEtud 105, Le Caire

Baines, J. 1990: Restricted Knowledge, Hierarchy, and Decorum: Modern Perceptions and Ancient Institutions, JARCE 27, 1–23

Bakir, A. 1966: The Cairo Calendar no. 86637, Cairo

Barns, J.W.B. (Ed.) 1956: Five Ramesseum Papyri, Oxford

Beckerath, J. von 1968: Die « Stele der Verbannten » im Museum des Louvre, RdE 20, 7–36

Benedite, G. 1893: Description et histoire de l’île de Philae. Textes hiéroglyphiques. Le temple de Philae, 1er fasc., MMAF 13, Paris

Betz, H. (Ed.) 1986: The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation, Including the Demotic Spells, Chicago-London

Bierbrier, M.L., Meulenaere, H.J. de 1984: Hymne à Taouêret sur une stèle de Deir el-Médineh, [in:] Sundries in Honor of Torgny Säve-Söderbergh, Boreas 13, Uppsala, 23–32

Blackman, A.M., Fairman, H.W. 1944: The Myth of Horus at Edfu-II: C. The Triumph of Horus over His Enemies: A Sacred Drama (concluded), JEA 30, 5–22

Bleeker, C.J. 1969: The Religion of Ancient Egypt, [in:] Bleeker, C.J., Widengren, G. (Eds), Historia Religionum: Handbook for the History of Religions 1, Religions of the Past, Leiden, 40–114

Bleeker, C.J. 1973: Hathor and Thoth, Two Key Figures of the Ancient Egyptian Religion, Leiden

Borghouts, J.F. 1978: Ancient Egyptian Magical Texts, NISABA 9, Leiden

Borghouts, J.F. 1982: Divine Intervention in Ancient Egypt and its Manifestation (bAw), [in:] Demarée, R., Janssen, J. (Eds), Gleanings from Deir El-Medîna, EgUit 1, Leiden, 1–70

Borghouts, J.F. 2007: Book of the Dead (39): From Shouting to Structure, SAT 10, Wiesbaden

Bruyère, B. 1939: Rapport sur les fouilles de Deir el Médineh (1934–1935), FIFAO 16/3, Le Caire

Buck, A. de 1935: The Egyptian Coffin Texts. Texts of Spells, 1–75, vol. 1, OIP 34, Chicago

Caminos, R.A. 1958: The Chronicle of Prince Osorkon, AnOr 37, Roma

Caminos, R.A. 1964: The Nitocris Adoption Stela, JEA 50, 71–101

Capel, A., Markoe, G. (Eds) 1996: Mistress of the House, Mistress of the Heaven: Women in Ancient Egypt. Exhibition, Cincinnati Art Museum, Cincinnati, Ohio, 5 January 1997, The Brooklyn Museum, Brooklyn, New York, 21 February–18 May 1997, Cincinnati

Carrier, C. 2004a: Textes des sarcophages du Moyen Empire égyptien 1, Monaco

Carrier, C. 2004b: Textes des sarcophages du Moyen Empire égyptien 2, Monaco

Carrier, C. 2004c: Textes des sarcophages du Moyen Empire égyptien 3, Monaco

Carrier, C. 2009: Le Livre des Morts de l’Égypte ancienne, Paris

Carrier, C. 2010a: Textes des pyramides de l’Égypte ancienne II: Textes de la pyramide de Pépy Ier, Paris

Carrier, C. 2010b: Textes des pyramides de l’Égypte ancienne IV: Textes des pyramides de Mérenrê, d’Aba, de Neit, d’Ipout et d’Oudjebten, Paris

Chassinat, É. 1934: Le temple de Dendara 1, Le Caire

Collier, M., Quirke, S. (Eds) 2004: The UCL Lahun Papyri: Religious, Literary, Legal, Mathematical and Medical, BAR-IS 1209, Oxford

Collombert, P., Coulon, L. 2000: Les dieux contre la mer. Le début du “papyrus d’Astarté” (pBN 202), BIFAO 100, 193–242

Couyat, J., Montet, P. 1912: Les inscriptions hiéroglyphiques et hiératiques du Ouâdi Hammâmât, MIFAO 134, Le Caire

Daressy, G. 1894: Remarques et notes, RecTrav 16, 123–133

Darnell, J.C. 1997: The Apotropaic Goddess in the Eye, SAK 22, 35–48

Darnell, J.C. 2004: The Enigmatic Netherworld Books of the Solar-Osirian Unity. Cryptographic Compositions in the Tombs of Tutankhamun, Ramesses VI and Ramesses IX, OBO 198, Fribourg

Daumas, F. 1975: Besänftigung, [in:] LÄ I, 724–727

D’Auria, S. 2010: Offerings to the Discerning Eye: an Egyptological Medley in Honor of Jack A. Josephson, Culture and History of the Ancient Near East 38, Leiden

Edel, E. 1984: Die Inschriften der Grabfronten der Siut-Gräber in Mittelägypten aus der Herakleopolitenzeit, Opladen

Edwards, I. 1960: Oracular Amuletic Decrees of the Late New Kingdom 1, Hieratic Papyri in the British Museum 4, London

El-Sayed, R. 1981: Nehaher, BIFAO 81/1, 119–140

Epigraphic Survey 1930: The Excavation of Medinet Habu I. Earlier historical records of Ramses III, Medinet Habu I, OIP 8, Chicago 1930

Epigraphic Survey 1954: Reliefs and inscriptions at Karnak III: The Bubastite Portal, OIP 74, Chicago 1954

Erman, A., Wilcken, U. 1900: Die Naukratisstele, ZÄS 38, 127–135

Eyre, C. 2013: The Use of Documents in Pharaonic Egypt, Oxford

Faulkner, R. 1933: The Papyrus Bremner-Rhind (British Museum No. 10188), BiAeg 3, Bruxelles

Faulkner, R. 1934: The Lamentations of Isis and Nephthys, [in:] Mélanges Maspero I: Orient ancien, MIFAO 66, Le Caire, 337–348

Faulkner, R. 1937: The Bremner-Rhind papyrus–III, JEA 23/2, 166–185

Faulkner, R. 1938: The Bremner-Rhind papyrus–IV, JEA 24/1, 41–53

Faulkner, R. 1969: The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts, Oxford

Faulkner, R. 1972: A Concise Dictionary of Middle Egyptian, Oxford

Faulkner, R. 1973: The Ancient Egyptian Coffin Texts I. Spells 1–354, Warminster

Faulkner, R. 1977: The Ancient Egyptian Coffin Texts II. Spells 355–787, Warminster

Faulkner, R. 1978: The Ancient Egyptian Coffin Texts III. Spells 788–1185 & Index, Warminster

Faulkner, R. 1985: The Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead, London

Faulkner, R., Goelet, O. 1998: The Egyptian Book of the Dead: The Book of Going Forth by Day. Being the Papyrus of Ani (Royal Scribe of the Divine Offerings), San Francisco

Frandsen, P.J. 1998: On the Avoidance of Certain Forms of Loud Voices to the Sacred, [in:] Clarysse, W., Schoors, A., Willems, H. (Eds), Egyptian Religion: The Last Thousand Years II: Studies Dedicated to the Memory of Jan Quaegebeur, OLA 84, Leuven, 975–1000

Frankfort, H. 1948: Kingship and the Gods. A Study of Ancient Near Eastern Religion as the Integration of Society & Nature, Chicago

Frankfort, H. 1949: Ancient Egyptian Religion: An Interpretation, New York

Gardiner, A. 1909: The Admonitions of an Egyptian Sage from a Hieratic Papyrus in Leiden (Pap. Leiden 344 recto), Leipzig

Gardiner, A. 1911: Egyptian Hieratic Texts I. Literary Texts of the New Kingdom. The Papyrus Anastasi I and the Papyrus Koller Together with the Parallel Texts, Leipzig

Gardiner, A. 1932: Late-Egyptian Stories, BiAeg 1, Bruxelles

Gardiner, A. 1957: Hymns to Sobek in a Ramesseum Papyrus, RdE 11, 43–56

Gardiner, A. 1959: A Didactic Passage Re-Examined, JEA 45, 12–15

Gardiner, A. 1962: The Gods of Thebes as Guarantors of Personal Property, JEA 48, 57–69

Germond, P. 1981: Sekhmet et la protection du monde, AegHelv 9, Geneva

Goyon, J.-C. 1972: Confi rmation du pouvoir royal au nouvel an [Brooklyn Museum Papyrus 47.218.50], BiEtud 52, Le Caire

Goyon, J.-C. 1974: Sur une formule des rituels de conjuration des dangers de l’année : en marge du papyrus de Brooklyn 47.218.50. II, BIFAO 74, 75–83

Grapow, H. 1931: Die Welt vor der Schöpfung (Ein Beitrag zur Religionsgeschichte), ZÄS 67, 34–38

Griffith, F. 1889: The Inscriptions of Siût and Dêr Rîfeh, London

Griffiths, J.G. 1972: Symbolism of Red in Egyptian Religion, Ex Orbe Religionum 24, Leiden, 81–90

Hannig, R. 2006: Ägyptisches Wörterbuch II. Mittleres Reich und Zweite Zwischenzeit, Teil 1, KAW 112, Mainz a/Rhein

Hoens, D.J. 1982: A Short Survey of the History Egyptian Religion in the Netherlands, [in:] Voss, M.H. van, Hoens, D.J., Mussies, G., Plas, D. van der, Velde, H. te (Eds), Studies in Egyptian Religion Dedicated to Professor Jan Zandee, Leiden, 11–27

Hollis, S. 2008: The Ancient Egyptian “Tale of Two Brothers”: A Mythological, Religious, Literary, and Historico-political Study, Oakville

Hornung, E. 1975: Seth, Geschichte und Bedeutung eines ägyptischen Gottes, Symbolon N.F. 2, 49–64

Hornung, E., Abt, T. 2007: The Egyptian Amduat. The Book of the Hidden Chamber, Zürich

Jansen-Winkeln, K. 2007: Inschriften der Spätzeit II. Die 22.–24. Dynastie, Wiesbaden

Jansen-Winkeln, K. 2014: Inschriften der Spätzeit IV. Die 26. Dynastie, Wiesbaden

Jay, J.E. 2016: Orality and Literacy in the Demotic Tales, Culture and History of the Ancient Near East 81, Leiden

Jelinkova-Reymond, E. 1956: Les inscriptions de la statue guérisseuse de Djed-Her-le-Sauveur, BiEtud 23, Le Caire

Jéquier, G. 1911: Le Papyrus Prisse et ses variantes : papyrus de la Bibliothèque nationale (nos 183 à 194), papyrus 10371 et 10435 du British Museum, Tablette Carnarvon au Musée du Caire, Paris

Jong, A. de 2001: Hippopotami, [in:] Redford, D.B. (Ed.), The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt II, Cairo, 100–101

Jorgensen, J. 2015: Myths, Menarches and the Return of the Goddess, [in:] Nyord, R., Ryholt, K. (Eds), Lotus and Laurel: Studies on Egyptian Language and Religion in Honour of Paul John Frandsen, CNIP 39, Copenhagen, 133–164

Junker, H. 1911: Der Auszug der Hathor-Tefnut aus Nubien, APAW, Berlin

Kákosy, L. 1977: Ein literarisch-mythologisches Motiv: Osiris als Gott des Kampfes und der Rache, [in:] Assmann, J., Feucht, E., Grieshammer, R. (Eds), Fragen an die altägyptischen Literatur. Studien zum Gedenken an Eberhard Otto, Wiesbaden, 285–288

Kákosy, L. 1999: Egyptian Healing Statues in Three Museums in Italy (Turin, Florence, Naples), Catalogo del Museo Egizio di Torino Monumenti e Testi I, IX, Turin

Kaper, O. 2003: The Egyptian God Tutu. A Study of the Sphinx-god and Master of Demons with a Corpus of Monuments, OLA 119, Leuven-Paris

Kitchen, K. 1986: The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt (1100–650 B.C.), Warminster

Leahy, A. 1982–1983: Two Donation Stelae of Necho II, RdE 34, 77–91

Lefebvre, G. 1926: Herihor, vizir (statue du Caire, no 42190), ASAE XXVI, 63–68

Lefebvre, G. 1949: Rouges et nuances voisines, JEA 35, 72–76

Leitz, C. 1994: Tagewählerei. Das Buch HAt nHH pH.wy Dt und verwandte Texte 1. Textband, ÄgAbh 55, Wiesbaden

Lesko, L., Lesko, B. 2002: A Dictionary of Late Egyptian 1–2, Berkeley

Lichtheim, M. 1976: Ancient Egyptian Literature. A Book of Readings II. The New Kingdom, Berkeley-Los Angeles-London

Lichtheim, M. 1980: Ancient Egyptian Literature. A Book of Readings III. The Late Period, Berkeley-Los Angeles-London

Lucarelli, R. 2006: The Book of the Dead of Gatseshen: Ancient Egyptian Funerary Religion in the 10th Century BC, EgUit 21, Leiden

Manassa, C. 2007: The Late Egyptian Underworld: Sarcophagi and Related Texts from the Nectanebid Period, ÄAT 72, Wiesbaden

Maspero, G. 1908–1914: Sarcophages des époques persane et ptolémaïque, Catalogue Général des Antiquités Égyptiennes du Musée du Caire 1, Le Caire

Massart, A. 1954: The Leiden Magical Papyrus, I 343 + I 345, Leiden

Meeks, D. 1996: Daily life of the Egyptian Gods, London

Montet, P. 1930–1935: Tombeaux de Siout et de Deir Rifeh (suite), Kêmi 3, 45–111

Morenz, S. 1973: Egyptian Religion, New York

Morschauser, S. 1991: Threat-Formulae in Ancient Egypt. A Study of the History, Structure and Use of Threats and Curses in Ancient Egypt, Baltimore

Myśliwiec, K. 2000: The Twilight of Ancient Egypt: First Millennium B.C.E., Ithaca-London

Newberry, P.E. 1893: Beni Hassan I, ASEg 1, London

Niwiński, A. 1989: Studies on the Illustrated Theban Funerary Papyri of the 11th and 10th Centuries B.C., OBO 86, Freiburg-Göttingen

Nordh, K. 1996: Aspects of Ancient Egyptian Curses and Blessings. Conceptual Background and Transmission, Uppsala

Nyord, R. 2009: Breathing Flesh: Conceptions of the Body in the Ancient Egyptian Coffin Texts, CNIP 37, Copenhagen

Otto, E. 1975: Augensagen, [in:] LÄ I, 562–567

Piankoff, A. 1957: Mythological Papyri, Texts, BollSer XL/3, New York

Pinch, G. 1994: Magic in Ancient Egypt, London

Pinch, G. 2004: Egyptian Mythology. A Guide to the Gods, Goddesses, and Traditions of Ancient Egypt, Oxford

Quack, J.F. 1994: Die Lehren des Ani. Eine neuägyptischer Weisheitstext in seinem kulturellen Umfeld, OBO 141, Freiburg-Göttingen

Quack, J.F. 2011: From Ritual to Magic: Ancient Egyptian Precursors of the Charitesion and their Social Setting, [in:] Bohak, G., Harari, Y., Shaked, S. (Eds), Continuity and Innovation in the Magical Tradition, Jerusalem Studies in Religion and Culture 15, Leiden, 43–84

Quirke, S. 2013: Going out in Daylight: prt m hrw. The Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead: Translation, Sources, Meanings, GHP Egyptology 20, London

Richter, B.A. 2010: On the Heels of the Wandering Goddess: The Myth and the Festival at the Temples of the Wadi el-Hallel and Dendera, [in:] Dolińska, M., Beinlich, H. (Eds), 8. Ägyptologische Tempeltagung, Königtum, Staat und Gesellschaft früher Hochkulturen 3/3, Wiesbaden, 155–186

Ritner, R. 1993: The Mechanics of Ancient Egyptian Magical Practice, SAOC 54, Chicago

Ritner, R. 2009: The Libyan Anarchy: Inscriptions from Egypt’s Third Intermediate Period, Atlanta

Ryholt, K. 2012: Narrative Literature from the Tebtunis Temple Library, CNIP 35, Copenhagen

Sadek, A. 1987: Popular Religion in Egypt during the New Kingdom, HÄB 27, Hildesheim

Sander-Hansen, C. 1956: Die Texte der Metternichstele, AnAeg 7, Kopenhagen

Schiavo, R. 2013: Una lettera al morto per placare l’ira di una defunta: alcune osservazioni sulla coppa di Berlino 22573, EVO 36, 29–38

Schneider, T. 2013: Ancient Egypt Investigated: 101 Important Questions and Intriguing Answers, London-New York

Schneider, T. 2015: Modern Scholarship versus the Demon of Passover: An Outlook on Exodus Research and Egyptology through the Lens of Exodus 12, [in:] Levy, T.E., Schneider, T., William, H.C. (Eds), Israel’s Exodus in Transdisciplinary Perspective: Text, Archaeology, Culture, and Geoscience, Quantitative Methods in the Humanities and Social Sciences, Cham, 537–553

Sederholm, V.H. 2006: Papyrus British Museum 10808 and its Cultural and Religious Setting, PdÄ 24, Leiden

Sethe, K. 1928: Ägyptische Lesestücke zum Gebrauch im Akademischen Unterricht: Texte des Mittleren Reiches, Leipzig

Silverman, D.P. (Ed.) 1997: Ancient Egypt, London

Simpson, W.K. (Ed.) 2003: The Literature of Ancient Egypt. An Anthology of Stories, Instructions, and Poetry, New Haven-London

Sottas, H. 1913: La préservation de la propriété funéraire dans l’Ancienne Egypte. Avec le recueil des formules d’imprécation, BEPHE 205, Paris

Spiegelberg, W. 1922: Horus als Arzt, ZÄS 57, 70–71

Sternberg, H. 1984: Sachmet, [in:] LÄ V, 323–333

Störk, L. 1980: Leopard, [in:] LÄ III, 1006–1007

Störk, L. 1982: Pavian, [in:] LÄ IV, 915–920

Sweeney, D. 2002: Gender and Conversational Tactics in the Contendings of Horus and Seth, JEA 88, 141–162

Thijs, A. 2011: Introducing the Banishment Stele into the 20th Dynasty, ZÄS 138, 163–181

Troy, L. 1997: Mut Enthroned, [in:] Dijk, J. van (Ed.), Essays on Ancient Egypt in Honour of Herman te Velde, Egyptological Memoirs 1, Groningen, 301–315

Vandier, J. 1961: The Papyrus Jumilhac, Paris

Velde, H. te 1967: Seth, God of Confusion. A Study of his Role in Egyptian Mythology and Religion, PdÄ 6, Leiden

Velde, H. te 1982: The Cat as Sacred Animal of the Goddess Mut, [in:] Voss, M.H. van, Hoens, D.J., Mussies, G., Plas, D. van der, Velde, H. te (Eds), Studies in Egyptian Religion. Dedicated to Professor Jan Zandee, Leiden, 127–137

Verhoeven, U. 1985: Tefnut, [in:] LÄ VI, 296–304

Vernus, P. 1978: Athribis : textes et documents relatifs à la géographie, aux cultes, et à l’histoire d’une ville du Delta égyptien à l’époque pharaonique, BiEtud 74, Le Caire

VerSteeg, R. 2002: Law in Ancient Egypt, Durham

Waitkus, W. 1997: Die Texte in den unteren Krypten des Hathortempels von Dendera. Ihre Aussagen zur Funktion und Bedeutung dieser Räume, MÄS 47, Mainz a/Rhein

Wettengel, W. 2003: Die Erzählung von den beiden Brüdern. Der Papyrus d’Orbiney und die Königsideologie der Ramessiden, OBO 195, Freiburg-Göttingen Willems, H., Coppens, F., Meyer, M. de 2003: The temple of Shanhûr. Volume 1. The sanctuary, the «wabet», and the gates of the central hall and the great vestibule (1–98), OLA 124, Leuven-Paris

Wilson, P. 1997: A Ptolemaic Lexikon. A Lexicographical Study of the Texts in the Temple of Edfu, OLA 78, Leuven

Žabkar, L. 1988: Hymns to Isis in her Temple at Philae, Hanover-London

Zandee, J. 1947: De Hymnen aan Amon van Papyrus Leiden I 350, OMRO 28, Leiden

Zandee, J. 1966: An Ancient Egyptian Crossword Puzzle, MVEOL 15, Leiden

Zandee, J. 1977: Death as an Enemy, according to Ancient Egyptian Conceptions, New York


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Partnerzy platformy czasopism