Climate Smart Agriculture, need for 21st century to achieve socioeconomic and climate resilience agriculture in India: A geospatial perspective

Firoz Ahmad, Nazimur Rahman Talukdar, Meraj Uddin, Laxmi Goparaju



Climate change is now widely recognized as the major environmental threat
occurring mainly due to increasing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and causing the
extinction of biodiversity and enhances disruptions to ecosystems. Climate change risks are
found to be very significant and would have a profound impact on the livelihoods of millions
of poor people in India. In the present study, we have analyzed datasets of agriculture
Greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission (1990-2016), poverty, anthropogenic biomes, agriculture
crop production scenario (2008-2017), seasonal soil moisture status present (2006-2015) and
deficit (compared with 20 years’ time periods), present (1970-2000) annual mean, future
(2050) precipitation and temperature scenario of India and investigated the spatial pattern and
relationship incorporating in remote sensing and GIS for the better comprehension of the
impact of climate changes on the socio-economic dimension of the people. The total GHGs
emissions (CO2 equivalent) from agriculture in India were showing the increasing trend
(approximately 1% annually) whereas the increasing trend has decreased notably in the last
five years. The states of Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Assam, Punjab, and Tamil Nadu
and Andhra Pradesh of India were found producing higher GHGs emissions from agriculture.
The present soil moisture and the deficit during the Kharif, Rabi, and Zaid seasons
vary geographically whereas soil moisture deficit during the Kharif season was found very
significant over most of the districts of Ganga and Brahmaputra basin. The present mean
annual temperature and precipitation patterns were found very significant in arid and semiarid
regions which are known as the farmer’s suicide hotspot and are predicted to threaten
more in the future (2050). The evaluation highlights the need for synergic approaches such as
climate-smart agriculture (CSA) to address the impact of climate change in food production
and farmers’ livelihood. Such an investigation gives a solid understanding of a paradigm shift
in the adaptation of CSA an approach in prevailing new climate change reality at country or
regional levels for achieving socio-economic and climate resilience agriculture in India.


climate; greenhouse gas; India; Remote Sensing; socio-economic; soil moisture

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