Afforestation of heathlands and its influence on the land cover, accumulation of plant biomass and energy flow in the landscape: An example from Zaborski Landscape Park

Andrzej Nienartowicz, Anna Lewandowska-Czarnecka, Enrique Ortega, Miłosz Deptuła, Anna Filbrandt-Czaja, Magdalena Kownacka

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12775/EQ.2015.016

Abstract


In the mid-19th century, the sheep industry played a considerable part in sheep breeding in Pomerania. Livestock grazing took place on extensive heathlands developed as a result of land deforestation performed in the 17th and 18th century, as well as during and after the Napoleonic wars. The sheep industry and the related textile craft developed until the 1890s when the Prussian government began the restoration of forests after the period of their excessive exploitation. The Prussian government policy contributed to the afforestation and the growing forest range through purchasing of landed estates, in particular the Polish ones, and creating forest divisions, followed by reconstruction of forests. This paper presents the history of the Widno estate belonging to Mr. Konstanty Przytarski. The estate was located in the northern part of the present-day Zaborski Landscape Park, near the town of Brusy and Chojnice. In 1894, the estate was sold to the Prussian forest administration. The paper presents changes in the land use and the forest above-ground biomass. Furthermore, changes in the structure of the energy flow network through the natural and production-cultural subsystems are presented. The network structure was analysed according to the methodology presented by H.T. Odum. Data contained in the sales contract of the Widno estate were used in the analysis, together with a forest inventory book of the Prussian Forest Inspectorate Zwangshoff and inventory books of the Polish Inspectorate Przymuszewo. The study highlighted the increasing role of sheep breeding on small family farms established by employees of the forest division on the leased lands. This form of activity refers to the economic traditions in the region of Zabory.


Keywords


ecological history; forestry; heathlands; landscape structure; energy flow network; sheep-farming; forest-stand biomass; Pomerania

Full Text:

PDF

References


Amici V., Rocchini D., Geri F., Bacaro G., Marcantonio M. & Chiarucci A., 2012, Effects on an afforestation process on plant species richness: A retrogressive analysis, Ecological Complexity, 9: 55–62.

Brown M.T. & Ulgiati, S., 1997, Emergy-based indices and ratios to evaluate sustainability: monitoring economies and technology toward environmentally sound innovation, Ecological Engineering, 9: 51–69.

Cavalett O., de Queiroz J.F. & Ortega E., 2006, Emergy assessment of integrated production systems of grains, pig and fish in small farms in the South Brazil, Ecological Modelling, 193: 205–224.

Christiansen S., 2001, Flows of matter in a traditional heathland farm about 1840: An example from northern West Jutland, Denmark, Danish Journal of Geography, 101: 43–66.

Cordes H., Kaiser T., Lancken v. d. H., Lütkepohl M., & Prüter J., 1997, Naturschutzgebiet Lüneburger Heide: Geschichte – Ökologie – Naturschutz, Verlag H. M. Hauschild GmbH, Bremen.

Flinn K.M. & Vellend M., 2005, Recovery of forest plant communities in post-agricultural landscapes, Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 3: 243–250.

Franzese P.P., Cavalett O., Häyhä T. & D’Angelo S., 2013, Integrated Environmental Assessment of Agricultural and Farming Production Systems in the Toledo River Basin (Brazil), UNESCO, International Hydrological Programme, Paris.

Haden A.C., 2003, Emergy Evaluations of Denmark and Danish Agriculture: Assessing the Limits of Agricultural Systems to Power Society, Ecological Agriculture 37, Centre for Sustainable Agriculture, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.

Heil G.W., Muys, B. & Hansen, K. (eds), 2007, Environmental Effects of Afforestation in North-Western Europe: From field observation to Decision Support, Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

Hirata H. & Ulanowicz R.E., 1984, Information theoretical analysis of ecological network, International Journal of Systems Science, 15: 261–270.

Jarzębski M., Nienartowicz A., Deptuła M., Bubnicki J. & Domin D.J., 2010, Past, current and potential resources of carbon and above-ground plant biomass in the landscape with heats in Tuchola Forest, Ecological Questions, 13: 9–27.

Kirkby K. J. & Watkins Ch, 2008, The Ecological History of European Forests, CABI Publishing, CPI Anthony

Rowe, Eastbourne.

Koerner W., Dupouey J. L., Dambrine E. & Benoit N., 1997, Influence of past land use on the vegetation and soils of present days forest in the Vosges mountains, France, Journal of Ecology, 85: 351–358.

Kovach W.L., 1986–2007, MVSP Plus version 3.1, Pentraeth, UK.

Kozikowski A., 1911, Historya lasów Prus Królewskich w świetle prawdy [History of forests in Royal Prussia in the light of truth], Sylwan, 29(8): 337–350 (in Polish).

Kukier R., 1968, Kaszubi bytowscy: Zarys monografii etnograficznej [Kashubians from the Bytów region: Outline of ethnographic monograph], Wydawnictwo Morskie, Gdynia.

Lauschner Ch. & Rode M.W., 1999, The role of plant resources in forest succession: changes in radiation, water and nutrient fluxes, and plant productivity over a 300-yr-long chronosequence in NW-Germany, Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 2(1): 103–147.

Nienartowicz A., 1996, Energetyka dużych systemów ekologicznych [Energetics of large ecological systems],

Wyd. UMK, Toruń.

Nienartowicz A., Filbrandt-Czaja A., Deptula M. & Boinski M., 1997/1998, Changes in land use and their effect

on species diversity and above-ground standing crop in the surroundings of lake Milachowo, [in:] S. Borsuk.

(ed.), Research of the lakes in national parks and other protected areas, II Int. Scientific Conference, Wyd. Habitat, Bydgoszcz: 20–31.

Nienartowicz A., Deptuła M., Domin D. J., 2008, Zużycie energii kulturowej i wpływ działań człowieka na strukturę krajobrazu w kluczu zaborskim w XV-XVIII wieku [Cultural energy consumption and human influence on the structure of landscape in the Zabory Demesne in the 15th-18th c.], Kwartalnik Historii Kultury

Materialnej, 3–4: 375–395.

Odum H.T., 1971, Environment, power and society, John Wiley, New York.

Odum H.T., 1988, Self organization, transformity and information, Science, 242: 1132–1139.

Odum H.T., 1996, Environmental accounting: Emergy and environmental decision making, John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Rode M.W., 1999a, Influence of forest growth on former heathland on nutrient input and its consequences for nutrition and management of heath and forest, Forest Ecology and Management, 114: 31–43.

Rode M. W., 1999b, The interaction between organic layer and forest growth and forest development on former heathland, Forest Ecology and Management 114: 117–127.

Rótolo G.C., Rydberg T., Lieblein G. & Francis C., 2007, Emergy evaluation of grazing cattle in Argentina’s Pampas, Agriculture, Ecosystema and Environment, 119: 383–395.

Salbitano F. (ed.), 1988, Human influence on Forest Ecosystem Development in Europe, Pitagora Editrice, Bologna.

Ślaski K., 1951, Zasięg lasów na Pomorzu w ostatnim tysiącleciu [The range of Pomeranian forests in the last millennium], Przegląd Zachodni VII, 1951(1–4): 207–263 (in Polish).

Tilley D. R., 1999, Emergy basis of forest systems, Ph. D. Thesis, University of Florida, Gainesville.

Ulgiati S. & Brown M.T., 1998, Monitoring patterns of sustainability in natural and man-made ecosystems, Ecological Modelling, 108: 23–36.

Wachowiak B., 1993, Dział II: Gospodarka i społeczeństwo (wieś i miasto) [Section II: Economy and Society (the Countryside and the City)], [in:] G. Labuda (ed.),

Historia Pomorza Vol. III (1815–1850), Część I Gospodarka, społeczeństwo, system polityczny [History of

Pomerania], Vol. III (1815–1850), Part I Economy, Society, Political system], Pozn. Tow. Przyj. Nauk., Poznan: 177–321.

Wallace H.L., Good J.E.G. & Williams T.G., 1992, The effects of afforestation on upland plant communities: an

application of the National Vegetation Classification, Journal of Applied Ecology, 29: 180–194. Watkins Ch., 1993, Ecological Effects of Afforestation: Studies in the history and ecology of afforestation in Western Europe, CABI International, Redwood Press, Melksham.

Wielopolski A., 1959, Gospodarka Pomorza Zachodniego w latach 1800–1918 [Economy of West Pomerania in 1800–1918], Societas Scientiarum Stetinensis, Faculty of Social Sciences, Vol. II, Szczecin (in Polish).

Viglia S., Franzese P.P., Zucaro A., Blackstock K.L., Matthews K.B. & Ulgiati S., 2009–2011, Resource use and biophysical constraints of Scottish agriculture, [in:] S.

Viglia (ed.), Evaluation of natural capital and ecosystem services: Assessing investments and benefits of environmental conservation options, International Doctoral Programme in Environment, Resources and

Sustainable Development, XXIV cycle, Parthenope University, Naples: 66–85.

Viglia S., Nienartowicz A., Kunz M., Franzese P.P., 2013, Integrating Environmental Accounting, Life Cycle and Ecosystem Services Assessment, Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management, 1(4): 307–319.

von Oheimb G., Härdtle W., Naumann P.S., Westphal Ch., Assmann T. & Meyer H., 2008, Long-term effects of historical heathland farming on soil properties of forest ecosystems, Forest Ecology and Management, 255: 1984–1993.

Zaborski B., 1935, Kaszuby na przełomie XVIII I XIX wieku w świetle mapy Schröttera-Engelhardta z lat 1796–1802 [Die Kaschubei am Anfang des XIX. Jahrhunderts im Lichte der Karte von Schrötter-Engelchardt A.D. 1796–1802], Wiadomości Służby Geograficznej, 18: 239–262.

Zerbe S. & Brande A., 2003, Woodland degradation and regeneration in Central Europe during the last 1,000 years – a case study in NE Germany, Phytocoenologia, 33(4): 683–700.




Partnerzy platformy czasopism