Impact of air born technogenic pollution on agricultural soils depending on prevailing winds in Polissya region (NW Ukraine)

Roman H. Fedoniuk, Tatiana P. Fedoniuk, Anastasia A. Zimaroieva, Viktor M. Pazych, Olena V. Zubova

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12775/28637

Abstract


The article presents the results of the research on air born technogenic pollution of agrolandscapes as a result of the receipt of non-localized inorganic dust from several industrial enterprises, which are concentrated in a small area (for example, the eastern industrial facilities in Zhytomyr). It has been stated that the activity of these enterprises involves the formation of dust containing high concentrations of Mn, Zn, Pb and Cu. Thus, the article shows the concentration levels of dust in the air at different distances from the source of emission. The role of wind characteristics in dissipation of pollutants within the limits of the given territory is determined. It is proved that dust pollution of the territory causes changes in soil texture. The increase in the fraction of the coarse dust is observed at the distance of up to 250 m, of the medium dust – up to 400 m, of the fine dust – up to 600 m, the content of the smallest fractions increases from 50 and is kept to a height of up to 750 m. Such soil composition near the eastern industrial site possesses a high soil permeability, poor water retention and absorption properties, low water resistance and buffering of pollutants, etc. Therefore, as a result of the redistribution of soil fractions, changes in the humidity regime and humus accumulation occur. It was revealed that the greatest danger in the immediate proximity to the industrial facilities is the formation of copper compounds that comes in coarse dust particles, its highest concentrations are noted in the 1-km zone, where the significant variability of pollution is noted – from 1 to 5 maximum permissible concentration, which determines by the role of wind streams in creating a general "picture" of pollution. All other investigated groups of pollutants – zinc, lead and manganese compounds – create a hazard in more distant areas, due to their receipt as a fine particle fraction of dust. The loss of these compounds is also marked by variability and heterogeneity within the studied area, which we also associate with variables of wind characteristics. It is these groups of compounds that create the greatest danger for the "well-being" of agroecosystems surrounding the area of the industrial facilities.

Keywords


Airborn technogenic contamination; dust; heavy metals; toxicity; arable soils; Zhytomyr

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