Securitization of Energy Security in Central Asia

Dariusz Czywilis, Łukasz Nita, Jacek Sobański

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12775/18369

Abstrakt


This paper reviews the contemporary theoretical approaches to the subjects of international security policy and energy security. Apart from discussing the theory of securitization, especially in context of a theoretical debate between representatives of political realism and constructivism, key research dilemmas, concerning the defining of energy security and crucial security threats, will be presented as well. Second part of the paper contains a short description of international politics in the Central Asia, with particular reference to presentation of politics of the regional political powers and the post-Soviet republics. It is followed by presentation of securitizing actions of those subjects taken in the field of energy security. Among presented contexts of those actions are following issues: development of drilling infrastructure, security of transport, conflicts concerning access to alternative energy sources and political power game in presented region.

Full text: http://bazhum.muzhp.pl/czasopismo/589/?idno=14762


Słowa kluczowe


international security; energy security; securitization; Copenhagen School; Central Asia; international powers; energy cooperation; political rivalry

Bibliografia


Abdullaev K., Historical Dictionary of Tajikistan, Plymouth 2010.

Access Denied: The Practice and Policy of Global Internet Filtering, Ronald Deibert, John Palfrey, Rafal Rohozinski, Jonathan Zittrain (eds.), Cambridge 2008.

Adler E., Barnett M., A Framework for the Study of Security Communities [in:] Security Communities, E. Adler, M. Barnett (eds.), Cambridge 1998.

Adler E., Communitarian International Relations: The Epistemic Foundations of International Relations, London–New York 2005.

Allison R., Strategic Reassertion in Russia’s Central Asia Policy, “International Affairs” 2004, No. 2.

Aris S., Managing Central Asia: Russia’s Approach, International Relations and Security Network, http://www.isn.ethz.ch/Digital-Library/Articles/Special-Feature/Detail/?lng=en&id=160464&tabid=1454180197&contextid774=160464&contextid775=160462, 04.03.2012 [Access date: 11.07.2013].

Azizian R., The Optimists Have the Lead, For Now: Russia’s China Debate, “Asian Pacific Center of Security Studies” 2003, Special Assessment.

Balzacq T., Constructivism and Securitization Studies [in:] The Routledge Handbook of Security Studies, M. Cavelty, V. Mauer (eds.), Abingdon–New York 2010.

Barnett M., Social Constructivism [in:] The Globalization of World Politics: an Introduction to International Relations, J. Baylis, S. Smith (eds.), Oxford 2006.

Berger P., Luckmann T., The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge, Oxford 1966.

Bergsager H., China, Russia and Central Asia: The Energy Dilemma, Fridtj of Nansen Institute 2012.

Blake Jr. R.O., The New Silk Road and Regional Economic Integration, U.S. Department of State, http://www.state.gov/p/sca/rls/rmks/2013/206167.htm [Access date: 27.06.2013].

Bujnowski M., “Jedwabny szlak XXI wieku” – Międzynarodowy Korytarz Transportowy Europa–Kaukaz–Azja [“Silk Road of the 21st Century” – International Transport Corridor Europe–Caucasus–Asia], “Stosunki międzynarodowe” [International Relations] 2012, No. 2.

Burgess J., Securitization Theory: How Security Problems Emerge and Dissolve, London–New York 2011.

Buzan B., Hansen L., The Evolution of International Security Studies, Cambridge 2009.

Buzan B., Jones C., Little R., The Logic of Anarchy: Neorealism to Structural Realism, New York 1993.

Buzan B., People, States and Fear: An Agenda for International Security Studies in the Post Cold War Period, Brighton 1991.

Buzan B., Security, the State, the ‘New World Order’ and Beyond [in:] On Security, R.D. Lipschutz (ed.), New York 1998.

Buzan B., Waever O., De Wilde J., Security – A New Framework for Analysis, Boulder 1998.

Buzan B., Waever O., Regions and Powers: The Structure of International Security, Cambridge 2003.

Canadian Energy Security: What Does Energy Security Mean for Canada?, Canadian Security Intelligence Service, http://www.csis-scrs.gc.ca/pblctns/cdmctrch/Cnd_nrg_Scrt_Rprt-eng.pdf [Access date: 11.07.2013].

Catley R., Mosler D., The American Challenge: the World Resists US Liberalism, Burlington 2007.

Cha V.D., Globalization and the Study of International Security, “Journal of Peace Research” 2000, No. 3

Chalk P., Non-Military Security in the Wider Middle East, “Conflict & Terrorism” 2006, No. 3.

Childs-Staley B., Ladislaw S., Zyla K., Goodward J., Evaluating the Enegery Security Implications of a Carbon-Constrained U.S. Economy, Washington 2009.

China and MENA States Face Long-Term Energy Challenges, Maplecroft Global Risk Analytics, http://maplecroft.com/about/news/energy_security_2011.html, 02.06.2011 [Access date: 25.06.2013].

Cleveland C., Morris C., Dictionary of Energy. Expanded Edition, Oxford 2009.

Clinton H., Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton Speaks on India and the United States: A Vision for the 21st Century, Embassy of the United States in Chennai, http://chennai.usconsulate.gov/secclintonspeechacl_110721.html [Access date: 23.06.2013].

Ćwiek-Karpowicz J., Polityka energetyczna Rosji wobec Unii Europejskiej w kontekście kryzysu gospodarczego [Russian Energy Policy Toward the European Union in the Context of the Economic Crisis], “Sprawy międzynarodowe” [International Issues] 2011, No. 1.

Czarkowska E., Rosja i Chiny w Azji Środkowej: między współpracą a współzawodnictwem [Russia and China in Central Asia: Between Cooperation and Rivalry], “Stosunki międzynarodowe” [International Relations] 2012, No. 1.

D. Holter, The Shanghai Cooperation Organization: Implications for Japanese Foreign and Security Policy, Vienna 2007.

Dammed if they do, The Economist, http://www.economist.com/node/21563764, 29.09.2012 [Access date: 29.06.2013].

Dannreuther R., International Relations Theories: Energy, Minerals and Conflict, “POLIN ARES Working Paper” 2008, No. 8.

Definition of ‘security’, Collins English Dictionary, http://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/security [Access date: 29.06.2013].

Definition of security in English, Oxford Dictionaries, http://oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/security [Access date: 29.06.2013].

Dent C.M., China, Japan and Regional Leadership in East Asia, Cheltenham 2008.

Deutsch K. et. al, Political Community and the North Atlantic Area: International Organization in the Light of Historical Experience, Princeton 1957.

Dobosz K., Współpraca energetyczna Rosji i Chin w XXI wieku [Energy Cooperation of Russia and China in the 21st Century], Stosunki Międzynarodowe, http://www.stosunki.pl/?q=content/wsp%C3%B3%C5%82praca-energetyczna-rosji-i-chin-w-xxi-wieku [Access date: 25.06.2013].

Energy Charter Secretariat, The Energy Charter Treaty and Related Documents, Brussels 2004.

Energy Policy of Turkmenistan and the UN Resolution on Reliable and Stable Transit of Energy, News Central Asia, http://newscentralasia.net/2013/05/23/energy-policyof-turkmenistan-and-the-un-resolution-on-reliable-and-stable-transit-of-energy/, 23.05.2013 [Access date: 27.06.2013].

Energy Security, International Energy Agency, http://www.iea.org/topics/energysecurity/ [Access date: 26.06.2013].

Fierke K.M., Critical Approaches to International Security, Cambridge 2007.

Floyd R., Human Security and the Copenhagen School’s Securitization Approach: Conceptualizing Security as a Securitizing Move, “Human Security Journal” 2007, No. 5.

Gellman B., Poitras L., U.S., British Intelligence Mining Data From Nine U.S. Internet Companies in Broad Secret Program, The Washington Post, http://www.washingtonpost.com/investigations/us-intelligence-mining-data-from-nine-us-internet-companies-inbroad-secret-program/2013/06/06/3a0c0da8-cebf-11e2–8845-d970ccb04497_story.html, 06.06.2013 [Access date: 17.07.2013].

Giragosian R., The Strategic Central Asian Arena, “China and Eurasia Forum Quarterly” 2006, No. 1.

Głębocki H., Radykalizm islamski w Azji Środkowej jako czynnik zbliżenia między Chinami a Rosją [Muslim Radicatism in Central Asia a as Motive for Rapprochement between China and Russia], “Biuletyn PISM” [Bulletin of the Polish Institute of International Affairs] 2001, No. 18.

Held D. et. al., Global Transformation: Politics, Economics and Culture, Cambridge 1999.

Homer-Dixon T., Environment, Scarcity, and Violence, West Sussex 1994,

http://www.eia.gov/energy_in_brief/article/major_energy_sources_and_users.cfm, 18.05.2012 [Access date: 26.06.2013].

Jarosiewicz A., Tadżycki gaz zmieni układ sil w Azji Centralnej? [Tajik Gas Will Change Power Balance in Central Asia?], Centre For Eastern Studies, http://www.osw.waw.pl/pl/publikacje/tydzien-na-wschodzie/2013-06-26/tadzycki-gaz-zmieni-uklad-silw-azji-centralnej [Access date: 02.07.2013].

Jervis R., System Effects: Complexity in Political and Social Life, Princeton 1997.

Jonson L., Russia and Central Asia [in:] Central Asia Security: The New International Context, R. Allison, L. Jonson (eds.), London–Washington 2001.

Karimov A., Kyrgyzstan to develop small hydro-plants, Central Asia Online, http://centralasiaonline.com/en_GB/articles/caii/features/main/2013/02/05/feature-01 [Access date: 02.07.2013].

Kasenov O., Central Asia: National, Regional and Global Aspects of Security [in:] Security Dilemmas in Russia and Eurasia, R. Allison, C. Bluth (eds.), London 1998.

Khrushcheva O., The Creation of an Energy Security Society as a Way to Decrease Securitization Levels between the European Union and Russia in Energy Trade, “Journal of Contemporary European Research” 2011, No. 2.

Kortunov A., Russia and Central Asia: Evolution of Mutual Perceptions, Policies and Interdependence, Rice 1998.

Kostecki W/, Strach i Potęga: bezpieczeństwo międzynarodowe w XXI w. [Fear and Power: International Security in the 21st Century], Warsaw 2012.

Ladislaw S., Zyla K., Childs B., Managing the Transition to a Secure, Low-Carbon Energy Future, Washington 2008.

Lamy S.L., Contemporary Mainstream Approaches Neo-realism and Neo-liberalism [in:] The Globalization of World Politics, J. Baylis, S. Smith (eds.), Oxford 2006.

Leszczyński T., Bezpieczeństwo energetyczne Unii Europejskiej do 2030 roku [Enegry Security of the European Union up to 2030], Warsaw 2009.

Mickiewicz P., Zapotrzebowanie surowcowe jako determinant chińskiej polityki wobec Azji Środkowej [Resource Demand as a Determinant of the Chinease Politics Towards Central Asia] [in:] Strategie w polityce azjatyckiej. Rozważania o aspiracjach i możliwościach współczesnej Azji [Strategies in Asian Politics. Deliberations on the Aspirations and Potential of Contemporary Asia], J. Marszałek-Kawa (ed.), Toruń 2011.

Muller-Kraenner S., Bezpieczeństwo energetyczne. Nowy pomiar świata [Energy Security. New Word Measurement], Szczecin 2009.

Mutimer D., Critical Security Studies: A Schismatic History [in:] Contemporary Security Studies, A. Collins (ed.), Oxford 2007.

Olcott M. et.al., The Changing Role of National Oil Companies in International Energy Markets, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, http://carnegieendowment.org/2007/03/08/changing-role-of-national-oil-companies-in-international-energymarkets/216, 08.03.2007 [Access date: 01.07.2013].

Onuf N., Constructivism: A User’s Manual [in:] International Relations in a Constructed World, P. Kowert, V. Kubalkova, N. Onuf (eds.), New York–London 1998.

Peimani H., Conflict and Security in Central Asia and the Caucasus, Santa Barbara 2009,

Permanent Sovereignty over Natural Resources, G.A. res. 1803 (XVII ), 17 U.N.GAOR Supp. (No.17) at 15, U.N. Doc. A/5217 (1962).

Pietraś M., Bezpieczeństwo ekologiczne w Europie. Studium politologiczne [Ecological Security in Europe. A Politological Study], Lublin 2000

Pop I., China’s Energy Strategy in Central Asia: Interactions with Russia, India and Japan, “UNI SCI Discussion Papers” 2010, No. 10.

Prantl J., Cooperating in Energy Security Regime Complex, “Asia Security Initiative Policy Series: Working Paper” 2011, No. 18.

Priority Positions of Turkmenistan at the 67 th Session of the UN General Assembly: Press Release, The Turkmenistan Embassy, http://turkmenistanembassy.org/wp-content/wpcf7_captcha/2012/09/PRESS-RELEASE.pdf [Access date: 09.07.2013].

Russell R., Erkebaуev A., Kyrgyzstan Risks Regional Water Fight, as Russia Waits in the Wings, The Washington Times, http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2012/nov/9/kyrgyzstan-risks-regional-water-fight-russia-waits/?page=all, 09.11.2012 [Access date: 09.07.2013].

Russia, China to Sign $270bn Oil Contract, Press TV, http://www.presstv.ir/detail/2013/06/21/310109/russia-china-to-ink-major-oil-deal/ [Access date: 29.06.2013].

Sharples J., Russo-Polish Energy Security Relations: a Case of Threatening Dependency, Supply Guarantee, or Regional Energy Security Dynamics?, “Political Perspectives” 2012, No. 1.

Shoemaker M., Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States, Lanham 2012.

Simpfendorfer B., The New Silk Road: How a Rising Arab World is Turning Away from West and Rediscovering China, London 2011.

Smil V., Moore’s Curse and the Great Energy Delusion, The American, http://www.american.com/archive/2008/november-december-magazine/moore2019s-curse-and-thegreat-energy-delusion, 19.11.2008 [access 26.06.2013].

Smith S., The Contested Concept of Security [in:] Critical Security Studies and World Politics, K. Booth (ed.), Boulder 2005.

Šušić V., Živković J., Energy Resources and Global Geopolitical Processes, “Facta Universitatis” 2012, No. 1.

Szadziewski H., How the West was Won: China’s Expansion into Central Asia, “Caucasian Review of International Affairs” 2009, No. 2.

The Culture of National Security: Norms and Identity in World Politics, P.J. Katzenstein (ed.), New York 1996.

Trilling D., Tajikistan: Rogun Dam a Hot Topic as Tajiks Make It Through Another Winter of Shortages, EurasiaNet, http://www.eurasianet.org/departments/insightb/articles/eav031309f.shtml, 12.03.2009 [Access date: 22.06.2013].

Turkmengaz: Europe is a Priority Direction of Turkmen Gas Export, Azer News, http://www.azernews.az/oil_and_gas/55325.html, 12.06.2013 [Access date: 29.06.2013].

Turkmenistan –Security Policy, Global Security, http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/centralasia/turkmen-policy.htm [Access date: 09.07.2013].

Tusicisny A., Security Communities and Their Values: Taking Masses Seriously, “International Political Science Review” 2007, No. 4,

Ullman R., Redefining security, “International Security” 1983, No. 1.

Ustawa z dn. 10 kwietnia 1997 r. Prawo energetyczne art 3. pkt. 16 [Act as of May 10, 1997, Energy Law Act, Art. 3 (16)].

Uzbekistan Bans Foreign Military Bases, RT Network, http://rt.com/politics/uzbekistan-military-base-ban-956/, 30.08.2012 [Access date: 11.07.2013].

Waever O., The EU as a Security Actor: Reflections from a Pessimist Constructivist on PostSovereign Security Orders [in:] International Relations Theory and the Politics of European Integration: Power, Security and Community, M. Kelstrup, M. Williams (eds.), London–New York 2000.

Walt S., Revolution and War, Ithaca 1997.

Waltz K., Theory of International Relations, New York 1979.

Wendt A., Anarchy Is What States Make of It, “International Relations” 1992, No. 2.

Wendt A., Social Theory of International Politics, Cambridge, 1999.

Wilkinson C., The Copenhagen School on Tour in Kyrgyzstan: Is Securitization Theory Useable Outside Europe?, “Security Dialogue” 2007, No. 1.

Xing G., China’s Foreign Policy Toward Kazakhstan [in:] Thinking Strategically: the Major Powers, Kazakhstan and the Central Asian Nexus, R. Legvold (ed.), Cambridge 2003

Yang J., A Strategic Game: China’s Energy Relations with Japan and China [in:] China’s Energy Relations with the Developing World, C. Courier, M. Dorraj (eds.), London–New York 2011.

Yergin D., Ensuring Energy Security, “Foreign Affairs” 2006, No. 2.

Zięba R., Kategoria bezpieczeństwa w nauce o stosunkach międzynarodowych [Category of Security in Political Relations] [in:] Bezpieczeństwo Narodowe i Międzynarodowe u Schyłku XX w. [National and International Security at the End of the 20th Century], D. Bobrow, E. Haliżak, R. Zięba (eds.), Warsaw 1997.

Ziętek A., Kategoria „sekurytyzacji” w bezpieczeństwie kulturowym [The Theory of ‘Securitization’ in Cultural Security], “Stosunki międzynarodowe” [International Studies] 2011, No. 1–2.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Partnerzy platformy czasopism